References

1. Chopra, I.; Roberts, M.C. Tetracycline antibiotics: Mode of action, applications, molecular biology and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 2001, 65, 232-260.

2. Hughes, V.M.; Datta, N. Conjugative plasmids in bacteria of the ''pre-antibiotic'' era. Nature 1983, 301, 725-726.

3. Levy, S.B.; McMurry, L.M.; Barbosa, T.M.; Burdett, V.; Courvalin, P.; Hillen, W.; Roberts, M.C.; Rood, J.I.; Taylor, D.E. Nomenclature for new tetracycline resistance determinants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1999, 3, 1523-1524.

4. http://faculty.washington.edu/marilynr (accessed December 2003).

5. Mendez, B.; Tachibana, C.; Levy, S.B. Heterogeneity of tetracycline resistance determinants. Plasmid 1980, 3, 99108.

6. Pang, Y.; Bosch, M.T.; Roberts, M.C. Single polymerase chain reaction for the detection of tetracycline resistant determinants Tet K and Tet L. Mol. Cell. Probes 1994, 8, 417-422.

7. Roberts, M.C. Resistance to tetracycline, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, trimethoprim and sulfonamide drug classes. Mol. Biotechnol. 2002, 20, 261-283.

8. Roberts, M.C.; Pang, Y.; Riley, D.E.; Hillier, S.L.; Berger, R.C.; Krieger, J.N. Detection of Tet M and Tet O tetracycline resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Cell. Probes 1993, 7, 387-393.

9. Ng, K.L.; Martin, I.; Alfa, M.; Mulvey, M. Multiplex PCR for the detection of tetracycline resistant genes. Mol. Cell. Probes 2001, 15, 209-215.

10. Aminov, R.; Garrigues-Jeanjean, I.N.; Mackie, R.I. Molecular ecology of tetracycline resistance: Development and validation of primers for detection of tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2001, 67, 22-32.

11. Luna, V.A.; Roberts, M.C. The presence of the tetO gene in a variety of tetracycline resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes from Washington State. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1998, 42, 613-619.

12. Diaz-Torres, M.L.; McNab, R.; Spratt, D.A.; Villedieu, A.; Hunt, A.; Wilson, N.M.; Mullany, M.P. Novel tetracycline resistance determinant from the oral metagenome. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003, 47, 1430-1432.

13. Call, D.R.; Bakko, M.K.; Krug, M.J.; Roberts, M.C. Identifying antimicrobial resistance genes using DNA microarrays. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003, 47, 3290-3295.

14. Luna, V.A.; Roberts, M.C. The presence of the tetO gene in a variety of tetracycline resistant Streptococcus pneumo-niae serotypes from Washington State. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1998, 42, 613-619.

15. Alekshum, M.N.; Levy, S.B. Regulation of chromosomally mediated multiple antibiotic resistance: The mar regulation. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1997, 41, 2067-2075.

16. Cousin, S.L., Jr.; Whittington, W.L.; Roberts, M.C. Acquired macrolide resistance genes and the 1 bp deletion in the mtrR promoter in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2003, 51, 131-133.

17. Ross, J.I.; Eady, E.A.; Cove, J.H.; Cunliffe, W.J. 16S rRNA mutation associated with tetracycline resistance in a Gram-positive bacterium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1998, 42, 1702-1705.

18. Bolhuis, H.; van Veen, H.W.; Poolman, B.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N. Mechanisms of multidrug transporters. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 1997, 21, 55 - 84.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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