References

1. Zhanel, G.G.; Ennis, K.; Vercaigne, L.; Walkty, A.; Gin, A.S.; Embil, J.; Smith, H.; Hoban, D.J. A critical review of the fluoroquinolones: Focus on respiratory tract infections . Drugs 2002, 62 (1), 13-59.

2. Bui, M.; Stone, G.G.; Nilius, A.M.; Almer, L.; Flamm, R.K. PCR-oligonucleotide ligation assay for detection of point mutations associated with quinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003, 47, 1456-1459.

3. Drlica, K.; Zhao, X. DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 1997, 61 (3), 377-392.

4. Hooper, D.C. Mechanism of FQ res. In Gram Positive Pathogens; Fischetti, V.A., Novick, R.P., Ferretti, J.J., Portnoy, D.A., Rood, J.I., Eds.; American Society of Microbiology: Washington, DC, 2000; 685-693.

5. Yague, G.; Morris, J.E.; Pan, X.S.; Gould, K.A.; Fisher, L.M. Cleavable-complex formation by wild-type and quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae type II topoisomerases mediated by gemifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2002, 46, 413-419.

6. Kays, M.B.; Smith, D.W.; Wack, M.F.; Denys, G.A. Levofloxacin treatment failure in a patient with fluoroqui-nolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Pharmacotherapy 2002, 22, 395-399.

7. Richardson, D.C.; Bast, D.; McGeer, A.; Low, D.E. Evaluation of susceptibility testing to detect fluoroquino-lone resistance mechanisms in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2001, 45, 1911-1914.

8. Bast, D.J.; Low, D.E.; Duncan, C.L.; Kilburn, L.; Mandell, L.A.; Davidson, R.J.; deAzavedo, J.C.S. Fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Contributions of type II topoisomerase mutations and efflux to levels of resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemo-ther. 2000, 44, 3049-3054.

9. Jorgensen, J.H.; Weigel, L.M.; Swenson, J.M.; Whitney, C.G.; Ferraro, M.J.; Tenover, F.C. Activities of clinaflox-acin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, and trovafloxcin against recent clinical isolates of levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2000, 44, 2962-2968.

10. Zhanel, G.G.; Walkty, A.; Nichol, K.; Smith, H.; Noreddin, A.; Hoban, D.J. Molecular characterization of fluoroqui-nolone resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates obtained from across Canada. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2003, 45, 63-67.

11. Davidson, R.; Cavalcanti, R.; Brunton, J.L.; Bast, D.J.; deAzavedo, J.C.S.; Kibsey, P.; Fleming, C.; Low, D.E. Resistance to levofloxacin and failure of treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002, 346, 747-750.

12. Low, D.; Duncan, C.; deAzavedo, J.; McGeer, A.; Bast, D. Topoisomerase II Mutations in Susceptible Pneumococci: The Need for Revised NCCLS Levofloxacin Breakpoints. Abstracts of the 13th ECCMID. European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Glasgow, Scotland, May 10-13, 2003; Blackwell Publishing, 2003; Vol. 0247, 49.

13. Smith, H.J.; Nichol, K.A.; Palatnick, L.; Weshnoweski, B.; Zhanel, G.G.; Hoban, D.J. Molecular Characterization of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Canada. Abstracts of the 13th ECCMID. European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Glasgow, Scotland, May 10-13, 2003; Blackwell Publishing, 2003; Vol. P1457, 122.

Forensic DNA Samples—Collection and Handling

Mark Benecke

International Forensic Research & Consulting, Cologne, Germany

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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