References

1. Crolla, J.A. FISH and molecular studies of autosomal supernumerary marker chromosomes excluding those 13. derived from chromosome 15: II. Review of the literature.

2. Crolla, J.A.; Long, F.; Rivera, H.; Dennis, N.R. FISH and molecular study of autosomal supernumerary marker 14. chromosomes excluding those derived from chromosomes

15 and 22: I. Results of 26 new cases. Am. J. Med. Genet. 1998, 75 (4), 355-366.

3. Chudoba, I.; Franke, Y.; Senger, G.; Sauerbrei, G.; Demuth, S.; Beensen, V.; Neumann, A.; Hansmann, I.; 15. Claussen, U. Maternal UPD 20 in a hyperactive child with severe growth retardation. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 1999, 75 (5), 33-40.

4. Kotzot, D. Review and meta-analysis of systematic searches for uniparental disomy (UPD) other than UPD 16. 15. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2002, 111 (4), 366-375.

5. Kotzot, D. Complex and segmental uniparental disomy (UPD): Review and lessons from rare chromosomal complements. J. Med. Genet. 2001, 38 (8), 497-507.

6. Liehr, T. Multicolor FISH (M-FISH) literature. http://mti-n. mti.uni-jena.de/~huwww/MOL_ZYTO/mFISHlit.htm.

7. Liehr, T.; Heller, A.; Starke, H.; Claussen, U. FISH banding methods: Applications in research and diagnostics. 17. Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 2002, 2 (3), 217-225.

8. Starke, H.; Schreyer, I.; Kahler, C.; Fiedler, W.; Beensen,

V.; Heller, A.; Nietzel, A.; Claussen, U.; Liehr, T. 18. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a prenatally detected supernumerary minute marker chromosome 8. Prenat. Diagn. 1999, 19 (12), 1169-1174.

9. Nietzel, A.; Rocchi, M.; Starke, H.; Heller, A.; Fiedler, W.; Wlodarska, I.; Loncarevic, I.F.; Beensen, V.; Claussen, U.; Liehr, T. A new multicolor-FISH approach for the characterization of marker chromosomes: Centromere-specific multicolor-FISH (cenM-FISH). Hum. Genet. 19. 2001, 108 (3), 199-204.

10. Henegariu, O.; Bray-Ward, P.; Artan, S.; Vance, G.H.; Qumsyieh, M.; Ward, D.C. Small marker chromosome identification in metaphase and interphase using centro-

meric multiplex FISH (CM-FISH). Lab. Invest. 2001, 81 (4), 475-481.

Trifonov, V.; Seidel, J.; Starke, H.; Prechtel, M.; Beensen, V.; Ziegler, M.; Hartmann, I.; Heller, A.; Nietzel, A.; Claussen, U.; Liehr, T. Enlarged chromosome 13 p-arm hiding a cryptic partial trisomy 6p22.2-pter. Prenat. Diagn. 2003, 23 (5), 427-430.

Von Eggeling, F.; Hoppe, C.; Bartz, U.; Starke, H.; Houge, G.; Claussen, U.; Ernst, G.; Kotzot, D.; Liehr, T. Maternal uniparental disomy 12 in a healthy girl with a 47,XX, + der(12)(:p11(q11:)/46,XX karyotype. J. Med. Genet. 2002, 39 (7), 519-521.

Nietzel, A.; Heller, A.; Starke, H.; Liehr, T. Centromere-Specific Multicolor-FISH (cenM-FISH). In FISH-Technology, Springer-Labmanual; Rautenstrauss, B., Liehr, T., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, 2002; 425-431. Nietzel, A.; Albrecht, B.; Starke, H.; Heller, A.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Claussen, U.; Liehr, T. Partial hexasomy 15pter ! 15q13 including SNRPN and D15S10: First molecular cytogenetically proven case report. J. Med. Genet. 2003, 40 (3), 1-4. E28.

Starke, H.; Mitulla, B.; Nietzel, A.; Heller, A.; Beensen, V.; Grosswendt, G.; Claussen, U.; von Eggeling, F.; Liehr, T. First case of trisomy 21 accompanied by an additional der(4)(:p11(q11:) plus partial uniparental disomy 4p15-16. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2003, 116A (1), 26-30. Starke, H.; Raida, M.; Trifonov, V.; Clement, J.H.; Loncarevic, I.F.; Heller, A.; Bleck, C.; Nietzel, A.; Rubtsov, N.; Claussen, U.; Liehr, T. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of an acquired minute supernumerary marker chromosome as the sole abnormality in a case clinically diagnosed as atypical Philadelphia-negative chronic mye-logenous leukaemia. Br. J. Haematol. 2001, 113 (2), 435438.

Amor, D.J.; Choo, K.H. Neocentromeres: Role in human disease, evolution, and centromere study. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2002, 71 (4), 695-714.

Starke, H.; Nietzel, A.; Weise, A.; Heller, A.; Mrasek, K.; Belitz, B.; Kelbova, C.; Volleth, M.; Albrecht, B.; Mitulla, B.; Trappe, R.; Bartels, I.; Adolph, S.; Dufke, A.; Singer, S.; Stumm, M.; Wegner, R.D.; Seidel, J.; Schimdt, A.; Kuechler, A.; Schreyer, I.; Claussen, U.; Von Eggeling, F.; Liehr, T. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs): Genotype-phenotype correlation and classification. Hum. Genet. 2003, 114 (1), 51-67. Daniel, A.; Malafiej, P. A series of supernumerary small ring marker autosomes identified by FISH with chromosome probe arrays and literature review excluding chromosome 15. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2003, 117A (3), 212-222.

FISH—Clinical Applications of 24-Color FISH

Adewale Adeyinka Syed M. Jalal

Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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