detection of diphtheria toxin among isolates of pathogenic corynebacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1998, 36 (11), 31733177.

13. Engler, K.H.; Glushkevich, T.; Mazurova, I.K.; George, R.C.; Efstratiou, A. A modified Elek test for detection of toxigenic corynebacteria in the diagnostic laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1997, 35, 495-498.

14. Reinhardt, D.J.; Lee, A.; Popovic, T. Antitoxin-inmembrane and antitoxin-in-well assays for detection of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1998, 36, 207-210.

Engler, K.H.; Efstratiou, A. Rapid enzyme immunoassay for determination of toxigenicity among clinical isolates of corynebacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2000, 38 (4), 13851389.

Engler, K.H.; Efstratiou, A.; Norn, D.; Kozlov, R.S.; Selga, I.; Glushkevich, T.G.; Tam, M.; Melnikov, V.G.; Mazurova, I.K.; Kim, V.F.; Tseneva, G.Y.; Titov, L.P.; George, R.C. Immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of diphtheria toxin: Description and multicenter evaluation in areas of low and high prevalence of diphtheria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002, 40 (1), 80-83. Pallen, M.J.; Hay, A.J.; Puckey, L.H.; Estratiou, A. Polymerase chain reaction for screening clinical isolates of corynebacteria for the production of diphtheria toxin. J. Clin. Pathol. 1994, 47, 353-356.

Mikhailovich, V.M.; Melnikov, V.G.; Mazurova, I.K.; Wachsmuth, I.K.; Wenger, J.D.; Wharton, M.; Nakao, H.; Popovic, T. Application of PCR for detection of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated during the Russian diphtheria epidemic, 1990 through 1994. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1995, 33, 3061-3063.

Nakao, H.; Popovic, T. Development of a direct PCR assay for detection of the diphtheria toxin gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1997, 35, 1651-1655.

Mothershed, E.A.; Cassiday, P.K.; Pierson, K.; Mayer, L.W.; Popovic, T. Development of a real-time fluorescence PCR assay for rapid detection of the diphtheria toxin gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002, 40 (12), 4713-4719. Popovic, T.; Mazurova, I.K.; Efstratiou, A.; Vuopio-Varkila, J.; Reeves, M.W.; De Zoysa, A.; Gluskevich, T.; Grimont, P. Molecular epidemiology of diphtheria. J. Infect. Dis. (Suppl. 1) 2000, 181, S168-177. Nakao, H.; Mazurova, I.K.; Glushkevich, T.; Popovic, T. Analysis of heterogeneity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin gene, tox, and its regulatory element, dxtR, by direct sequencing. Res. Microbiol. 1997, 148, 45-54. Dittmann, S.; Wharton, M.; Vitek, C.; Ciotti, M.; Galazka, A.; Guichard, S.; Hardy, I.; Kartoglu, U.; Koyama, S.; Kreysler, J.; Martin, B.; Mercer, D.; R0nne, T.; Roure, C.; Steinglass, R.; Strebel, P.; Sutter, P.; Trostle, M. Successful control of epidemic diphtheria in the states of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Lessons learned. J. Infect. Dis. 2000, 181 (Suppl. 1), S10-S22.

1. Funke, G.; Bernard, K.A. Coryneform Gram-Positive 15. Rods. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology; Murray, P.R.,

Baron, E.J., Pfaller, M.A., Jorgensen, J.H., Yolken, R.H., Eds.; ASM Press: Washington, DC, 2003; 472-501.

2. Holmes, R.K. Diphtheria and Other Corynebacterial 16. Infections. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine,

16th Edition; Kasper, D.L., Braunwald, E., Fauci, A.S., Hauser, S.L., Longo, D.L., Jameson, J.L., Eds.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2005; Chapter 122, pp. 832-836.

3. Pappenheimer, A.M., Jr. The story of a toxic protein, 1888-1992. Protein Sci. 1993, 2 (2), 292-298.

4. Holmes, R.K. Biology and molecular epidemiology of 17. diphtheria toxin and the tox gene. J. Infect. Dis. 2000, 181 (Suppl. 1), S156-S167.

5. Hadfield, T.L.; McEvoy, P.; Polotsky, Y.; Tzinserling,

V.A.; Yakovlev, A.A. The pathology of diphtheria. J. 18. Infect. Dis. 2000, 181 (Suppl. 1), S116-S120.

6. Galazka, A.M.; Robertson, S.E. Diphtheria: Changing patterns in the developing world and the industrialized world. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 1995, 11 (1), 107-117.

7. Marston, C.K.; Jamieson, F.; Cahoon, E.; Lesiak, G.;

Golaz, A.; Reeves, M.; Popovic, T. Persistence of a distinct 19. Corynebacterium diphtheriae clonal group within two communities in the United States and Canada where diphtheria is endemic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2001, 39 (4), 20. 1586-1590.

8. Vitek, C.R.; Wharton, M. Diphtheria in the former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a pandemic disease. Emerg. Infect.

9. Markina, S.S.; Maksimova, N.M.; Vitek, C.R.; Bogatyreva, E.Y.; Monisov, A.A. Diphtheria in the Russian Federation in the 1990s. J. Infect. Dis. 2000, 181 (Suppl. 1), S27-

10. Oram, D.M.; Holmes, R.K. Toxins That Interfere With Protein Synthesis. In Microbial Toxins: A Critical Review; Proft, T., Ed.; Horizon Scientific Press: Wymondham, UK,

11. Barile, M.F.; Kolb, R.W.; Pittman, M. United States standard diphtheria toxin for the Schick text and the erythema potency assay for the Schick text dose. Infect. Immun. 1971, 4 (3), 295-306.

12. Efstratiou, A.; Engler, K.H.; Dawes, C.S.; Sesardic, D. Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic methods for

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment