References

1. Nicholson, J.K.; Lindon, J.C.; Holmes, E. 'Metabonomics': Understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data. Xenobio-tica 1999, 29, 1181-1189.

2. Nicholson, J.K.; Connelly, J.; Lindon, J.C.; Holmes, E. Metabonomics: A platform for studying drug toxicity and gene function. Nat. Rev., Drug Discov. 2002, 1, 153-162.

3. Lindon, J.C.; Nicholson, J.K.; Everett, J.R. NMR Spectroscopy of Biofluids; Webb, G.A., Ed.; Ann. Reports NMR Spectr., Academic Press: Oxford, UK, 1999; Vol. 38, 1-88.

4. Lindon, J.C.; Holmes, E.; Bollard, M.E.; Stanley, E.G.; Nicholson, J.K. Metabonomics technologies and their applications in physiological monitoring, drug safety assessment and disease diagnosis. Biomarkers 2004, 9, 1-31.

5. Plumb, R.S.; Stumpf, C.L.; Gorenstein, M.V.; Castro-Perez, J.M.; Dear, G.J.; Anthony, M.L.; Sweatman, B.C.; Connor, S.C.; Haselden, J.N. Metabonomics: The use of electrospray mass spectrometry coupled to reversed-phase liquid chromatography shows potential for the screening of rat urine in drug development. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2002, 16, 1991-1996.

6. Garrod, S.L.; Humpfer, E.; Spraul, M.; Connor, S.C.; Polley, S.; Connelly, J.; Lindon, J.C.; Nicholson, J.K.; Holmes, E. High-resolution magic angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopic studies on intact rat renal cortex and medulla. Magn. Reson. Med. 1999, 41, 1108-1118.

7. Lindon, J.C.; Holmes, E.; Nicholson, J.K. Pattern recognition methods and applications in biomedical magnetic resonance. Prog. NMR Spectrosc. 2001, 39, 1-40.

8. Lindon, J.C.; Nicholson, J.K.; Wilson, I.D. Directly-coupled HPLC-NMR and HPLC-NMR-MS in pharmaceutical research and development. J. Chromatogr., B 2000, 748, 233-258.

9. Bollard, M.E.; Stanley, E.G.; Lindon, J.C.; Nicholson, J.K.; Homes, E. NMR-based metabonomics approaches for evaluating physiological influences on biofluid composition NMR. Biomed. in press.

10. Moolenaar, S.H.; Engelke, U.F.H.; Wevers, R.A. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of body fluids in the field of inborn errors of metabolism. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 2003, 40, 16-24.

11. Maxwell, R.J.; Martinez-Perez, I.; Cerdan, S.; Cabanas, M.E.; Arus, C.; Moreno, A.; Capdevila, A.; Ferrer, E. Bartomeus, F.; Aparicio, A.; Conesa, G.; Roda, J.M. Carcellar, F.; Pascual, J.M.; Howells, S.L.; Mazucco, R. Griffiths, J.R. Pattern recognition analysis of 1H NMR spectra from perchloric acid extracts of human brain tumor biopsies. Magn. Reson. Med. 1998, 39, 869-877.

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13. Tomlins, A.; Foxall, P.J.D.; Lindon, J.C.; Lynch, M.J.; Spraul, M.; Everett, J.R.; Nicholson, J.K. High resolution magic angle spinning 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of intact prostatic hyperplastic and tumour tissues. Anal. Commun. 1998, 35, 113-115.

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15. Brindle, J.T.; Antti, H.; Holmes, E.; Tranter, G.; Nicholson, J.K.; Bethell, H.W.L.; Clarke, S.; Schofield, P.M.; McKilligin, E.; Mosedale, D.E.; Grainger, D.J. Rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of the presence and severity of coronary heart disease using H-1 NMR-based metabonomics. Nat. Med. 2002, 8, 1439-1445.

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