References

1. Cole, S.T.; Canard, B. Structure, Organization and Evolution of the Genome of Clostridium perfringens. In The Clostridia: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis; Rood, J.I., McClane, B.A., Songer, G., Titball, R.W., Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; 50-63.

2. Katayama, S.; Dupuy, B.; Garnier, T.; Cole, S.T. Rapid expansion of the physical and genetic map of the chromosome of Clostridium perfringens CPN50. J. Bacter-iol. 1995, 177 (19), 5680-5685.

3. http://www.tigr.org/tdb/mdb/mdbinprogress.html. 2003.

4. Shimizu, T.; Ohtani, K.; Hirakawa, H.; Ohshima, K.; Yamashita, A.; Shiba, T.; Ogasawara, N.; Hattori, M.; Kuhara, S.; Hayashi, H. Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002, 99 (2), 996-1001.

5. Shimizu, T.; Shima, K.; Yoshino, K.; Yonezawa, K.; Hayashi, H. Proteome and transcriptome analysis of the virulence genes regulated by the VirR/VirS system in Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 2002, 184 (10), 2587-2594.

6. Petit, L.; Gibert, M.; Popoff, M.R. Clostridium perfringens: Toxinotype and genotype. Trends Microbiol. 1999, 7 (3), 104-110.

7. Rood, J.I. Virulence genes of Clostridium perfringens. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1998, 52, 333-360.

8. Billington, S.J.; Wieckowski, E.U.; Sarker, M.R.; Bue-schel, D.; Songer, J.G.; McClane, B.A. Clostridium perfringens type E animal enteritis isolates with highly conserved, silent enterotoxin gene sequences. Infect. Immun. 1998, 66 (9), 4531-4536.

9. Miyamoto, K.; Chakrabarti, G.; Morino, Y.; McClane, B.A. Organization of the plasmid cpe locus in Clostridium perfringens type A isolates. Infect. Immun. 2002, 70 (8), 4261-4272.

10. Brynestad, S.; Sarker, M.R.; McClane, B.A.; Granum, P.E.; Rood, J.I. Enterotoxin plasmid from Clostridium perfringens is conjugative. Infect. Immun. 2001, 69 (5), 3483-3487.

11. Garmory, H.S.; Chanter, N.; French, N.P.; Bueschel, D.; Songer, J.G.; Titball, R.W. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin amongst animals, determined using genotyping and subtyping PCR assays. Epidemiol. Infect. 2000, 124 (1), 61-67.

12. Olsen, S.J.; MacKinnon, L.C.; Goulding, J.S.; Bean, N.H.; Slutsker, L. Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks—United States, 1993-1997. MMWR CDC, Sur-veill. Summ. 2000, 49 (1), 1-62.

13. Carman, R.J. Clostridium perfringens in spontaneous and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea of man and other animals. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 1997, 8 (Suppl. 1), S43-S45.

14. Lukinmaa, S.; Takkunen, E.; Siitonen, A. Molecular epidemiology of Clostridium perfringens related to food-borne outbreaks of disease in Finland from 1984 to 1999. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2002, 68 (8), 3744-3749.

15. Wen, Q.; Miyamoto, K.; McClane, B.A. Development of a duplex PCR genotyping assay for distinguishing Clostrid-ium perfringens type A isolates carrying chromosomal enterotoxin (cpe) genes from those carrying plasmid-borne enterotoxin (cpe) genes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2003, 41 (4), 1494-1498.

16. Stevens, D.L. Necrotizing Clostridial Soft Tissue Infections. In The Clostridia: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis; Rood, J.I., McClane, B.A., Songer, G., Titball, R.W., Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; 141-151.

17. Stevens, D.L. The pathogenesis of clostridial myonecrosis. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 2000, 290 (4-5), 497-502.

18. Hale, M.L.; Stiles, B.G. Detection of Clostridium perfrin-gens alpha toxin using a capture antibody ELISA. Toxicon 1999, 37 (3), 471-484.

19. Stephens, M.B. Gas gangrene: Potential for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Postgrad. Med. 1996, 99 (4), 217-220, 224.

20. Johnson, S.; Gerding, D.N. Enterotoxemic Infections. In The Clostridia: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis; Rood, J.I., McClane, B.A., Songer, G., Titball, R.W., Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; 118-140.

21. Lawrence, G.W. The Pathogenesis of Enteritis Necroti-cans. In The Clostridia, Molecular Biology and Pathogen-esis; Rood, J.I., McClane, B.A., Songer, G., Titball, R.W., Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; 197-198.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment