1. Madeley, C.R.; Cosgrove, B.P. 28 nm particles in faeces in infantile gastroenteritis. Lancet 1975, 2, 451-452.

2. Lee, T.W.; Kurtz, J.B. Serial propagation of astrovirus in tissue culture with the aid of trypsin. J. Gen. Virol. 1981, 57, 421-424.

3. Willcocks, M.M.; Carter, M.J.; Silcock, J.G.; Madeley, C.R. Growth and characterization of human faecal astroviruses in a continuous cell line. Arch. Virol. 1990, 113, 73-81.

4. Williams, F.P. Electron microscopy of stool shed viruses: Retention of characteristic morphologies after long-term storage at ultra-low temperatures. J. Med. Virol. 1989, 29, 192-195.

5. Abad, F.X.; Villena, C.; Guix, S.; Caballero, S.; Pinto, R.M.; Bosch, A. Potential role of fomites in vehicular transmission of human astroviruses. Appl. Environ. Micro-biol. 2001, 67, 3904-3907.

6. Matsui, S.M.; Greenberg, H.B. Astroviruses. In Field's Virology, 4th Ed.; Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M., Eds.; Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2001; Vol. 1, 875-893.

7. Jiang, B.; Monroe, S.S.; Koonin, E.V.; Stine, S.E.; Glass, R.I. RNA sequence of astrovirus: Distinctive genomic organization and a putative retrovirus-like ribosomal frameshifting signal that directs viral replicase synthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1993, 90, 10539-10543.

8. Aroonprasert, D.; Fagerland, J.A.; Kelso, N.E.; Zheng, S.; Woode, G.N. Cultivation and partial characterization of bovine astrovirus. Vet. Microbiol. 1989, 19, 113-125.

9. Mendez, E.; Salas-Ocampo, M.P.; Munguia, M.E.; Arias, C.F. Protein products of the open reading frames encoding non-structural proteins of human astrovirus serotype 8. J. Virol. 2003, 77, 11378-11384.

10. Geigenmuller, U.; Chew, T.; Ginzton, N.; Matsui, S.M. Processing of non-structural protein 1a of human astro-virus. J. Virol. 2002, 76, 2003 -2008.

11. Koonin, E.V. The phylogeny of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of positive-strand RNA viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 1991, 72, 2197-2206.

12. Belliot, G.; Laveran, H.; Monroe, S.S. Detection and genetic differentiation of human astroviruses: Phylogenetic grouping varies by coding region. Arch. Virol. 1997, 142, 1323-1334.

13. Walter, J.E.; Briggs, J.; Guerrero, M.L.; Matson, D.O.; Pickering, L.K.; Ruiz-Palacios, G.; Berke, T.; Mitchell,

D.K. Molecular characterization of a novel recombinant strain of human astrovirus associated with gastroenteritis in children. Arch. Virol. 2001, 146, 2357-2367.

14. Lukashov, V.V.; Goudsmit, J. Evolutionary relationships among Astroviridae. J. Gen. Virol. 2002, 83, 1397-1405.

15. Kurtz, J.B.; Lee, T.W.; Craig, J.W.; Reed, S.E. Astrovirus infection in volunteers. J. Med. Virol. 1979, 3, 221-230.

16. Caballero, S.; Guix, S.; El-Senousy, W.M.; Calico, I.; Pinto, R.M.; Bosch, A. Persistent gastroenteritis in children infected with astrovirus: Association with serotype-3 strains. J. Med. Virol. 2003, 71, 245-250.

17. Snodgrass, D.R.; Angus, K.W.; Gray, E.W.; Menzies, N.D.; Paul, G. Pathogenesis of diarrhoea caused by astrovirus infection in lambs. Arch. Virol. 1979, 60, 217-226.

18. Koci, M.D.; Moser, L.A.; Kelley, L.A.; Larsen, D.; Brown, C.C.; Schultz-Cher, S. Astrovirus induces diarrhea in the absence of inflammation and cell death. J. Virol. 2003, 77, 11798-11808.

19. Thouvenelle, M.L.; Haynes, J.S.; Sell, J.L.; Reynolds, D.L. Astrovirus infection in hatchling turkeys: Alterations in maltase activity. Avian Dis. 1995, 39, 343-348.

20. Molberg, O.; Nilsen, E.M.; Sollid, L.M.; Scott, H.; Brandtzaeg, P.; Thorsby, E.; Lundin, K.E. CD4+ T-cells with specific-reactivity against astrovirus isolated from normal human small intestine. Gastroenterology 1998, 114, 115-122.

21. Liste, M.B.; Natera, I.; Suarez, J.A.; Pujol, F.H.; Liprandi, F.; Ludert, J.E. Enteric infections and diarrhea in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2000, 38, 2873-2877.

22. Cunliffe, N.A.; Dove, W.; Gondwe, J.S.; Thindwa,

B.D.M.; Greensill, J.; Holmes, J.L.; Bresee, J.S.; Monroe, S.S.; Glass, R.I.; Broadhead, R.L.; Molyneux, M.E.; Hart,

C.A. Detection and characterisation of human astroviruses in children with acute gastroenteritis in Blantyre, Malawi. J. Med. Virol. 2002, 67, 563 -566.

23. Hart, C.A.; Cunliffe, N.A. Viral gastroenteritis. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 1999, 12, 447-457.

24. Naficy, A.B.; Rao, M.R.; Holmes, J.L.; Abu-Elyazeed, R.; Kim, Y.; Rao, M.R.; Savarino, S.J.; Wierzba, T.F.; Hall,

E.; Clements, J.D. Astrovirus diarrhea in Egyptian children. J. Infect. Dis. 2000, 182, 685-690.

25. Hart, C.A. Introduction to Acute Infective Diarrhoea. In Manson's Tropical Diseases, 21st Ed.; Cook, G.C., Zumla, A., Eds.; W.B. Saunders: London, 2002; 907-913. Chapter 51.

26. Shi, M.; Sikotra, S.; Lee, T.; Kurtz, J.B.; Getty, B.; Hart, C.A.; Myint, S.H. Use of a nested PCR for the detection of astrovirus serotype 1 in human faecal material. Mol. Cell. Probes 1994, 8, 481-486.

27. Palombo, E.A.; Bishop, R.F. The annual incidence, serotype distribution and genetic diversity of human astrovirus isolates from hospitalised children in Melbourne, Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1996, 34, 1750-1753.

28. Guix, S.; Caballero, S.; Villena, C.; Bartolome, R.; Latorre, C.; Rabella, N.; Simo, N.; Bosch, A.; Pinto, R.M. Molecular epidemiology of astrovirus infection in Barcelona, Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002, 40, 133-139.

29. Belliot, G.; Laveraa, H.; Monroe, S.S. Outbreak of gastroenteritis in military recruits associated with serotype 3 astrovirus infection. J. Virol. 1997, 51, 101-106.

30. Hart, C.A.; Cunliffe, N.A. Diagnosis and causes of viral gastroenteritis. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 1996, 9, 333-339.

31. Moe, C.L.; Allen, J.R.; Monroe, S.S.; Gary, H.E.; Humphrey, C.D.; Herrmann, J.E.; Blacklow, N.R.; Carcamo, C.; Koch, M.; Kim, K.H. Detection of astrovirus in pediatric stool samples by immunoassay and RNA probe. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1991, 29, 2390-2395.

32. Saito, K.; Ushijima, H.; Nishio, O.; Oseto, M.; Motohiro, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takagi, M.; Nakaya, S.; Ando, T.; Glass, R.; Monroe, S.S. Detection of astrovirus from stool samples in Japan using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Microbiol. Immunol. 1995, 39, 825-828.

33. Noel, J.S.; Lee, T.W.; Kurtz, J.B.; Glass, R.I.; Monroe, S.S. Typing of human astrovirus from clinical samples by enzyme immunoassay and nucleotide sequencing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1995, 33, 797-801.

34. Ratcliff, R.M.; Doherty, J.C.; Higgins, J.D. Sensitive detection of RNA viruses associated with gastroenteritis by a hanging-drop single-tube nested reverse-transcription-PCR method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002, 40, 4091-4099.

35. Kriston, S.; Willcocks, M.M.; Carter, M.J.; Cubitt, W.D. Seroprevalence of astrovirus types 1 and 6 in London determined using recombinant virus antigen. Epidemiol. Infect. 1996, 117, 159-164.

36. Kurtz, J.B.; Lee, T.W.; Parsons, A.J. The action of alcohols on rotavirus, astrovirus and enterovirus. J. Hosp. Infect. 1980, 30, 948-952.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment