References

1. Lerman, L.S.; Frisch, H.L. Why does the electrophoretic mobility of DNA in gels vary with the length of the molecule? Biopolymers 1982, 21 (5), 995-997.

2. Schwartz, D.C.; Cantor, C.R. Separation of yeast chromosome-sized DNAs by pulsed field gradient gel electropho-resis. Cell 1984, 37 (1), 67-75.

3. Carle, G.F.; Olson, M.V. Separation of chromosomal DNA molecules from yeast by orthogonal-field-alternation gel electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984, 12 (14), 56475664.

4. Gardiner, K.; Laas, W.; Patterson, D. Fractionation of large mammalian DNA restriction fragments using vertical pulsed-field gradient gel electrophoresis. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 1986, 12 (2), 185-195.

5. Carle, G.F.; Frank, M.; Olson, M.V. Electrophoretic separations of large DNA molecules by periodic inversion of the electric field. Science 1986, 232 (4746), 65-68.

6. Chu, G.; Vollrath, D.; Davis, R.W. Separation of large DNA molecules by contour-clamped homogeneous electric fields. Science 1986, 234 (4783), 1582-1585.

7. Clark, S.M.; Lai, E.; Birren, B.W.; Hood, L. A novel instrument for separating large DNA molecules with pulsed homogeneous electric fields. Science 1988, 241 (4870), 1203-1205.

8. Cantor, C.R.; Gaal, A.; Smith, C.L. High-resolution separation and accurate size determination in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA: 3. Effect of electrical field shape. Biochemistry 1988, 27 (26), 9216-9221.

9. Maslow, J.; Mulligan, M.E. Epidemiologic typing systems. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1996, 17 (9), 595-604.

10. Pfaller, M.A.; Acar, J.; Jones, R.N.; Verhoef, J.; Turnidge, J.; Sader, H.S. Integration of molecular characterization of microorganisms in a global antimicrobial resistance surveillance program. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2001, 32 (Suppl. 2), S104-S113.

11. Goering, R.V. Molecular strain typing for the clinical laboratory: Current application and future direction. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 2000, 22, 169-173.

12. Wu, F.; Della-Latta, P. Molecular typing strategies. Semin. Perinatal. 2002, 26 (5), 357-366.

13. Silbert, S.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R.J.; Pfaller, M.A. Improving typeability of multiple bacterial species using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and thiourea. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2003, 47 (4), 619-621.

14. Chung, M.; de Lencastre, H.; Matthews, P.; Tomasz, A. Adamsson, I.; Aires de Sousa, M.; Camou, T.; Cocuzza C.; Corso, A.; Couto, I.; Dominguez, A.; Gniadkowski, M. Goering, R.; Gomes, A.; Kikuchi, K.; Marchese, A.; Mato R.; Melter, O.; Oliveira, D.; Palacio, R.; Sa-Leao, R. Santos Sanches, I.; Song, J.H.; Tassios, P.T.; Villari, P. Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: Comparison of results obtained in a multilaboratory effort using identical protocols and MRSA strains. Microb. Drug Resist. 2000, 6 (3), 189-198.

15. Murchan, S.; Kaufmann, M.E.; Deplano, A.; de Ryck, R. Straelens, M.; Zinn, C.E.; Fussing, V.; Salmenlinna, S. Vuopio-Varkila, J.; El Solh, N.; Cuny, C.; Witte, W. Tassios, P.T.; Legakis, N.; van Leeuwen, W.; van Belkum

A.; Vindel, A.; Laconcha, I.; Garaizar, J.; Haeggman, S. Olsson-Liljequist, B.; Ransjo, U.; Coombes, G.; Cookson,

B. Harmonization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for epidemiological typing of strains of methi-cillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A single approach developed by consensus in 10 European laboratories and its application for tracing the spread of related strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2003, 41 (4), 1574-1585.

16. Tenover, F.C.; Arbeit, R.D.; Goering, R.V.; Mickelsen, P.A.; Murray, B.E.; Persing, D.H.; Swaminathan, B.

Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: Criteria for bacterial strain typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1995, 33 (9), 22. 2233-2239.

17. Duck, W.M.; Steward, C.D.; Banerjee, S.N.; McGowan, J.E., Jr.; Tenover, F.C. Optimization of computer software settings improves accuracy of pulsed-field gel electropho-

resis macrorestriction fragment pattern analysis. J. Clin. 23. Microbiol. 2003, 41 (7), 3035-3042.

18. Goering, R.V. The Molecular Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infection. An Overview of Principles, Application and Interpretation. In Rapid Detection of Infectious Agents; Specter, S., Bendirelli, M., Freedman, H., Eds.; Plenum Press: New York, 1998; 131-157.

19. Saiman, L.; O'Keefe, M.; Graham, P.L., 3rd; Wu, F.; Said-

Salim, B.; Kreiswirth, B.; LaSala, A.; Schlievert, P.M.; 24. Della-Latta, P. Hospital transmission of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among postpar-tum women. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2003, 37 (10), 1313-1319.

20. Durmaz, R.; Durmaz, B.; Bayraktar, M.; Ozerol, I.H.; Kalcioglu, M.T.; Aktas, E.; Cizmeci, Z. Prevalence of group A streptococcal carriers in asymptomatic children and clonal relatedness among isolates in Malatya, Turkey.

21. Pavlopoulou, I.D.; Daikos, G.L.; Alexandrou, H.; Petridou, E.; Pangalis, A.; Theodoridou, M.; Syriopoulou, V.P. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis by Greek children: Risk factors and strain characteristics. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2004, 10 (2), 137-142.

Zeana, C.; Larson, E.; Sahni, J.; Bayuga, S.J.; Wu, F.; Della-Latta, P. The epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Does the community represent a reservoir? Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2003, 24 (4), 275-279.

Sivapalasingam, S.; Barrett, E.; Kimura, A.; Van Duyne, S.; De Witt, W.; Ying, M.; Frisch, A.; Phan, Q.; Gould, E.; Shillam, P.; Reddy, V.; Cooper, T.; Hoekstra, M.; Higgins, C.; Sanders, J.P.; Tauxe, R.V.; Slutsker, L. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica Serotype Newport infection linked to mango consumption: Impact of water-dip disinfestation technology. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2003, 37 (12), 1585-1590.

Naimi, T.S.; Wicklund, J.H.; Olsen, S.J.; Krause, G.; Wells, J.G.; Bartkus, J.M.; Boxrud, D.J.; Sullivan, M.; Kassenborg, H.; Besser, J.M.; Mintz, E.D.; Osterholm, M.T.; Hedberg, C.W. Concurrent outbreaks of Shigella sonnei and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections associated with parsley: Implications for surveillance and control of foodborne illness. J. Food Prot. 2003, 66 (4), 535-541.

Decludt, B.; Campese, C.; Che, D.; Jarraud, S.; Etienne, J. Clusters of travel associated legionnaires' disease in France, September 2001-August 2003. Eurosurveillance 2004, 9 (2), 7-8.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment