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2. Fan, Y.S.; Davis, L.M.; Shows, T.B. Mapping small DNA sequences by fluorescence in situ hybridization directly on banded metaphase chromosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 16. U. S. A. 1990, 87, 6223-6227.

Pinkel, D.; Landegent, C.; Collins, C.; Fuscoe, J.; Segraves, R.; Lucas, J.; Gray, J. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with human chromosome-specific libraries: Detection of trisomy 21 and translocations of chromosome 4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1988, 85, 91389142.

Schröck, E.; du Manoir, S.; Veldman, T.; Schoell, B.; Wienberg, J.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A.; Ning, Y.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Bar-Am, I.; Soenksen, D.; Garini, Y.; Ried, T. Multicolor spectral karyotyping of human chromosomes. Science 1996, 273, 494-497.

Fan, Y.S.; Siu, V.M.; Jung, J.H.; Xu, J. Sensitivity of multiple color spectral kartotyping in detecting small interchromosomal rearrangements. Genet. Testing 2000, 4, 9-14.

Speicher, M.R.; Ballard, S.G.; Ward, D.C. Karyotyping human chromosomes by combinatorial multi-fluor FISH. Nat. Genet. 1996, 12, 368-375.

Guan, X.Y.; Meltzer, P.; Dalton, W.; Trent, J. Identification of cryptic sites of DNA sequence amplification in human breast cancer by chromosome microdissection. Nat. Genet. 1994, 8, 155-160.

Kallioniemi, A.; Kallioniemi, O.P.; Suder, D.; Rutovitz, D.; Gray, J.; Waldman, F.; Pinkel, D. Comparative genomic hybridization for molecular cytogenetic analysis of solid tumors. Science 1992, 258, 818-821. Koch, J.; Kovarra, S.; Gregersen, N.; Petersen, K.B.; Bolund, L. Oligonucleotide-priming methods for the chromosome-specific labeling of alpha satellite DNA in situ. Chromosoma 1989, 98, 259-262. Heng, H.H.Q.; Squire, J.; Tsui, L.-C. High resolution mapping of mammalian genes by in situ hybridization to free chromatin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1992, 89, 9509-9513.

Müller, S.; Rocchi, M.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A.; Wienberg, J. Toward a multicolor chromosome bar code for the entire human karyotype by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Hum. Genet. 1997, 100, 271-278. Chudoba, I.; Plesch, A.; Lorch, T.; Lemke, J.; Claussen, U.; Senger, G. High resolution multicolor-banding: A new technique for refined FISH analysis of human chromosomes. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1999, 84, 156-160. Knight, S.J.L.; Horsley, S.W.; Regan, R.; Lawrie, N.M.; Maher, E.J.; Cardy, D.L.N.; Flint, J.; Kearney, L. Development and clinical application of an innovative fluorescence in situ hybridization technique which detects submicroscopic rearrangements involving telomeres. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 1997, 5, 1-8.

Weber-Matthiesen, K.; Winkemann, M.; Muller-Hermelink, A.; Schlegelberger, B.; Grote, W. Simultaneous fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytoge-netics: A contribution to the characterization of tumor cells. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1992, 40, 171-175. Feldman, B.; Ebrahim, S.A.D.; Hazan, S.L.; Gyi, K.; Johnson, M.P.; Johnson, A.; Evans, M.I. Routine prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy by FISH studies in high-risk pregnancies. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2000, 90, 233-238. Bischoff, F.Z.; Dang, D.X.; Lewis, D.E.; Simpson, J.L. Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosome Abnormalities Using

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17. Verlinsky, Y.; Cieslak, J.; Ivakhnenko, V.; Evsikov, S.; Wolf, G.; White, M.; Lifchez, A.; Kaplan, B.; Moise, J.; Valle, J.; Ginsberg, N.; Strom, C.; Kuliev, A. Preimplan-tation diagnosis of common aneuploidies by the first- and second-polar body FISH analysis. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 1998, 15, 285-289.

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FISH—Banding Methods and Clinical Applications

Thomas Liehr

Institut für Humangenetik und Anthropologie der FSU Jena, Jena, Germany

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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