References

1. Wilson, S.A.K. Progressive lenticular degeneration: A familial nervous disease associated with cirrhosis of the liver. Brain 1912, 34, 295 -509.

2. Fleischer, B. Über eine der ''Pseudosclerose'' nahe stehende bisher unbekannte Krankheit (gekennzeichnet durch Tremor, psychische Störungen, bräunliche Pigmentierung bestimmter Gewebe, insbesondere auch der Hornhautperipherie Lebercirrhose). Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 1912, 44, 179-201.

3. Rumpel, A. Über das Wesen und die Bedeutung der Leberveränderungen und der Pigmentierungen bei den damit verbundenen Fallen von Pseudosklerose, zugleich ein Beitrag zur Lehre der Pseudosklerose (Westphal-Strümpell). Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 1913, 49, 54-73.

4. Lüthy, F. Über die hepatolentikuläre Degeneration (Wilson-Westphal-Strumpell). Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 1931, 123, 101-181.

5. Bearn, A.G. A genetical analysis of thirty families with Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration). Ann. Hum. Genet. 1960, 24, 33-43.

6. Petrukhin, K.; Fischer, S.G.; Pirastu, M.; Tanzi, R.E.; Chernov, I.; Devoto, M.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Cayanis, E.; Vitale, E.; Russo, J.J.; Matseoane, D.; Boukhgalter, B.; Wasco, W.; Figus, A.L.; Loudianos, J.; Cao, A.; Sternlieb, I.; Evgrafov, O.; Parano, E.; Pavone, L.; Warburton, D.; Ott, J.; Penchaszadeh, G.K.; Scheinberg, I.H.; Gilliam, T.C. Mapping, cloning and genetic characterization of the region containing the Wilson disease gene. Nat. Genet. 1993, 5 (4), 338-343.

7. Bull, P.C.; Thomas, G.R.; Rommens, J.M.; Forbes, J.R.; Cox, D.W. The Wilson disease gene is a putative copper transporting P-type ATPase similar to the Menkes gene. Nat. Genet. 1993, 5 (4), 327-337.

8. Tanzi, R.E.; Petrukhin, K.; Chernov, I.; Pellequer, J.L.; Wasco, W.; Ross, B.; Romano, D.M.; Parano, E.; Pavone, L.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Devoto, M.; Peppercorn, J.; Bush, A.I.; Sternlieb, I.; Pirastu, M.; Gusella, J.F.; Evgrafov, O.; Penchaszadeh, G.K.; Honig, B.; Edelman, I.S.; Soares, M.B.; Scheinberg, I.H.; Gilliam, T.C. The Wilson disease gene is a copper transporting ATPase with homology to the Menkes disease gene. Nat. Genet. 1993, 5 (4), 344350.

9. Fleming, C.R.; Dickson, E.R.; Wahner, H.W.; Hollenhorst, R.W.; McCall, J.T. Pigmented corneal rings in non-Wilsonian liver disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 1977, 86 (3), 285-288.

10. Steindl, P.; Ferenci, P.; Dienes, H.P.; Grimm, G.; Pabinger, I.; Madl, C.; Maier-Dobersberger, T.; Herneth, A.; Dragosics, B.; Meryn, S.; Knoflach, P.; Granditsch, G.; Gangl, A. Wilson's disease in patients presenting with liver disease: A diagnostic challenge. Gastroenterology 1997, 113 (1), 212-218.

11. Roberts, E.A.; Schilsky, M.L. A practice guideline on Wilson disease. Hepatology 2003, 37 (6), 1475-1492.

12. Mercer, J.F. The molecular basis of copper-transport diseases. Trends Mol. Med. 2001, 7 (2), 64-69.

13. Tao, T.Y.; Gitlin, J.D. Hepatic copper metabolism: Insights from genetic disease. Hepatology 2003, 37 (6), 12411247.

14. Gross, J.B., Jr.; Ludwig, J.; Wiesner, R.H.; McCall, J.T.; LaRusso, N.F. Abnormalities in tests of copper metabolism in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gastroenterology 1985, 89 (2), 272-278.

15. Frommer, D.J. Ürinary copper excretion and hepatic copper concentrations in liver disease. Digestion 1981, 21 (4), 169-178.

16. Caca, K.; Ferenci, P.; Kuhn, H.J.; Polli, C.; Willgerodt, H.; Kunath, B.; Hermann, W.; Mossner, J.; Berr, F. High prevalence of the H1069Q mutation in East German patients with Wilson disease: Rapid detection of mutations by limited sequencing and phenotype-genotype analysis. J. Hepatol. 2001, 35 (5), 575-581.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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