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2. Martincic, D.; Kravtsov, V.; Gailani, D. Factor XI messenger RNA in human platelets. Blood 1999, 94 (10), 3397-3404.

3. Baglia, F.A.; Walsh, P.N. Thrombin-mediated feedback activation of factor XI on the activated platelet surface is preferred over contact activation by factor XIIa or factor XIa. J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275 (27), 20514-20519.

4. Baird, T.R.; Walsh, P.N. The interaction of factor XIa with activated platelets but not endothelial cells promotes the activation of factor IX in the consolidation phase of blood coagulation. J. Biol. Chem. 2002, 277 (41), 3846238467.

5. Minnema, M.C.; Ten Cate, H.; Hack, C.E. The role of factor XI in coagulation: A matter of revision. Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 1999, 25 (4), 419-428.

6. Bolton-Maggs, P.H.B. Factor XI deficiency and its management. Haemophilia 2000, 6 (Suppl. 1), 100-109.

7. Bolton-Maggs, P.H.B.; Patterson, D.A.; Wensley, R.T.; Tuddenham, E.G.D. Definition of the bleeding tendency in factor XI-deficient kindreds—A clinical and laboratory study. Thromb. Haemost. 1995, 73 (2), 194-202.

8. Keularts, I.M.L.W.; Zivelin, A.; Seligsohn, U.; Hemker, H.C.; Beguin, S. The role of factor XI in thrombin generation induced by low concentrations of tissue factor. Thromb. Haemost. 2001, 85 (6), 1060-1065.

9. Siegel, J. Factor XI deficiency. eMed. J. January 29, 2002, 3 (1).

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11. Salomon, O.; Zivelin, A.; Levnat, T.; Dardik, R.; Loewenthal, R.; Avishai, O.; Steinberg, D.M.; Rosove, M.H.; O'Connell, N.; Lee, C.A.; Seligsohn, U. Prevalence, causes and characterization of factor XI inhibitors in patients with inherited factor XI deficiency. Blood 2003, 101 (12), 4783-4788.

12. Peretz, H.; Mulai, A.; Usher, S.; Ziveiln, A.; Segal, A.; Weisman, Z.; Mittelman, M.; Lupo, H.; Lanir, N.; Brenner, B.; Shpilberg, O.; Seligsohn, U. The two common mutations causing factor XI deficiency in Jews stem from distinct founders: One of ancient Middle Eastern origin and another of more recent European origin. Blood 1997, 90 (7), 2654-2659.

13. Goldstein, D.B.; Reich, D.E.; Bradman, N.; Usher, S.; Seligsohn, U.; Peretz, H. Age estimates of two common mutations causing factor XI deficiency: Recent genetic drift is not necessary for elevated disease incidence among Ashkenazi Jews. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1999, 64 (4), 10711075.

14. Zivelin, A.; Bauduer, F.; Ducout, L.; Peretz, H.; Rosenberg, N.; Yatuv, R.; Seligsohn, U. Factor XI deficiency in French Basques is caused predominantly by an ancestral Cys38Arg mutation in the factor XI gene. Blood 2002, 99 (7), 24482454.

15. Martincic, D.; Zimmerman, S.A.; Ware, R.E.; Sun, M.-F.; Whitlock, J.A.; James, A.; Gailani, D. Identification of an African American family by dideoxyfingerprinting. Blood 1998, 92 (9), 3309-3317.

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17. Ventura, C.; Santos, A.I.M.; Tavares, A.; Gago, T.; Lavinha, J.; McVey, J.H.; Dezso, D. Molecular genetic analysis of factor XI deficiency: Identification of five novel gene alterations and the origin of type II mutation in Portuguese families. Thromb. Haemost. 2000, 84 (5), 833-840.

18. Asakai, R.; Davie, E.W.; Chung, D.W. Organization of the gene for human factor XI. Biochemistry 1987, 26 (23), 7221 -7228.

19. Hsu, T.C.; Shore, S.K.; Seshsmma, T.; Bagasra, O.; Walsh, P.N. Molecular cloning of platelet factor XI, an alternative splicing product of the plasma factor XI gene. J. Biol. Chem. 1998, 273 (22), 13787-13793.

20. Baglia, F.A.; Jameson, B.A.; Walsh, P.N. Identification and chemical synthesis of a substrate-binding site for factor IX on coagulation factor XIa. J. Biol. Chem. 1991, 266 (35), 24190-24197.

21. Sun, M.F.; Zhao, M.; Gailani, D. Identification of amino acids in the factor XI apple 3 domain required for activation of factor IX. J. Biol. Chem. 1999, 274 (51), 36373-36378.

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23. Baglia, F.A.; Jameson, B.A.; Walsh, P.N. Identification and characterization of a binding site for factor XIIa in the apple 4 domain of coagulation factor XI. J. Biol. Chem. 1993, 268 (6), 3838-3844.

24. Ho, D.H.; Badellino, K.; Baglia, F.A.; Sun, M.-F.; Zhao, M.-M.; Gailani, D.; Walsh, P.N. The role of high molecular weight kininogen and prothrombin as cofactors in the binding of factor XI A3 domain to the platelet surface. J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275 (33), 25139-25145.

25. Baglia, F.A.; Shrimpton, C.N.; Lopez, J.A.; Walsh, P.N. The glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex mediates localization of factor XI to lipid rafts on the platelet membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 2003, 278 (24), 21744-21750.

26. Dorfman, R.; Walsh, P.N. Noncovalent interactions of the apple 4 domain that mediate coagulation factor XI homodimerization. J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276 (9), 64296438.

27. Badellino, K.O.; Walsh, P.N. Localization of a heparin binding site in the catalytic domain of factor XIa. Biochemistry 2001, 40 (25), 7569-7580.

28. Dossenbach-Glaninger, A.; Krugluger, W.; Schrattbauer, K.; Eder, S.; Hopmeier, P. Severe factor XI deficiency caused by compound heterozygosity for the type III mutation and a novel insertion in exon 9 (codons 324/ 325 +G). Br. J. Haematol. 2001, 114 (4), 875-877.

29. Peretz, H.; Zivelin, A.; Usher, S.; Seligsohn, U. A 14-bp deletion (codon 554 del AAGgtaacagagtg) at exon 14/ intron N junction of the coagulation factor XI gene disrupts splicing and causes severe factor XI deficiency. Hum. Mutat. 1996, 8 (1), 77-78.

30. Morishita, E.; Kuroda, K.; Ohtake, S.; Ontachi, Y.; Mizutani, T.; Yamazaki, M.; Asakura, H.; Nakao, S. Three Novel Point Mutations That Cause Severe Factor XI Deficiency in Two Unrelated Japanese Families; J. Thromb. Haemost.; XIX International Congress of the

International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis: Birmingham, UK, July 12-18, 2003. Suppl. 1, Abstract P1211d.

31. Pugh, R.E.; McVey, J.H.; Tuddenham, E.G.D.; Hancock, J.F. Six point mutations that cause factor XI deficiency. Blood 1995, 85 (6), 1509-1516.

32. Kawaguchi, T.; Koga, S.; Hongo, H.; Komiyama, Y.; Li, K.; Ishihara, S.; Horikawa, K.; Hidaka, M.; Mitsuya, H.; Nakakuma, H. A novel type of factor XI deficiency showing compound genetic abnormalities: A nonsense mutation and an impaired transcription. Int. J. Hematol. 2000, 71 (1), 84- 89.

33. Iijima, K.; Udagawa, A.; Kawasaki, H.; Murakami, F.; Shimomura, T.; Ikawa, S. A factor XI deficiency associated with a nonsense mutation (Trp501stop) in the catalytic domain. Br. J. Haematol. 2000, 111 (2), 556-558.

34. Mitchell, M.; Harrington, P.; Cutler, J.; Rangarajan, S.; Savidge, G.; Alhaq, A. Eighteen unrelated patients with factor XI deficiency, four novel mutations and a 100% detection rate by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Br. J. Haematol. 2003, 121 (3), 500502.

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) Syndrome

Nader Hanna Shaun McKenzie Heather Pierce

University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky, U.S.A.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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