References

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2. Knudson, A.G. Mutation and cancer: Statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Ü. S. A. 1971, 68 (4), 820-823.

3. Friend, S.H.; Bernards, R.; Rogelj, S.; Weinberg, R.A.; Rapaport, J.M.; Albert, D.M.; Dryja, T.P. A human DNA segment with properties of the gene that predisposes to retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Nature 1986, 323 (6089), 643-646.

4. Gallie, B.L.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Abramson, D.H.; Phillips, R.A. Retinoma: Spontaneous regression of retinoblastoma or benign manifestation of the mutation? Br. J. Cancer

5. Eng, C.; Li, F.P.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Wong, F.L.; Goldman, M.B.; Seddon, J.; Tarbell, N.; Boice, J.J. Mortality from second tumors among long-term survivors of retinoblastoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1993, 85 (14), 1121-1128.

6. Cavenee, W.K.; Dryja, T.P.; Phillips, R.A.; Benedict, W.F.; Godbout, R.; Gallie, B.L.; Murphree, A.L.; Strong, L.C.; White, R.L. Expression of recessive alleles by chromosomal mechanisms in retinoblastoma. Nature

7. Dunn, J.M.; Phillips, R.A.; Zhu, X.; Becker, A.; Gallie, B.L. Mutations in the RB1 gene and their effects on transcription. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1989, 9 (11), 4596-4604.

8. Yandell, D.W.; Campbell, T.A.; Dayton, S.H.; Petersen, R.; Walton, D.; Little, J.B.; McConkie-Rosell, A.; Buckley, E.G.; Dryja, T.P. Oncogenic point mutations in the human retinoblastoma gene: Their application to genetic counseling. N. Engl. J. Med. 1989, 321 (25), 1689-1695.

9. Lohmann, D.R.; Gerick, M.; Brandt, B.; Oelschlager, U.; Lorenz, B.; Passarge, E.; Horsthemke, B. Constitutional RB1-gene mutations in patients with isolated unilateral retinoblastoma. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1997, 61, 282-294.

10. Sippel, K.C.; Fraioli, R.E.; Smith, G.D.; Schalkoff, M.E.; Sutherland, J.; Gallie, B.L.; Dryja, T.P. Frequency of somatic and germ-line mosaicism in retinoblastoma: Implications for genetic counseling. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1998, 62 (3), 610-619.

11. Chau, B.N.; Wang, J.Y. Coordinated regulation of life and death by RB. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2003, 3 (2), 130-138.

12. Classon, M.; Harlow, E. The retinoblastoma tumour suppressor in development and cancer. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2002, 2 (12), 910-917.

13. DiCiommo, D.; Gallie, B.L.; Bremner, R. Retinoblastoma: The disease, gene and protein provide critical leads to understand cancer. Semin. Cancer Biol. 2000,10 (4), 255269.

14. Lohmann, D.R.; Brandt, B.; Hopping, W.; Passarge, E.; Horsthemke, B. Spectrum of RB1 germ-line mutations in hereditary retinoblastoma. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1996, 58, 940-949.

15. Richter, S.; Vandezande, K.; Chen, N.; Zhang, K.; Sutherland, J.; Anderson, J.; Han, L.; Panton, R.; Branco, P.; Gallie, B. Sensitive and efficient detection of RB1 gene mutations enhances care for families with retinoblastoma. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2003, 72 (2), 253-269.

16. Lohmann, D.R. RB1 gene mutation database. 1998.

17. Hagstrom, S.A.; Dryja, T.P. Mitotic recombination map of 13cen-13q14 derived from an investigation of loss of heterozygosity in retinoblastomas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1999, 96 (6), 2952-2957.

18. Greger, V.; Debus, N.; Lohmann, D.; Hopping, W.; Passarge, E.; Horsthemke, B. Frequency and parental origin of hypermethylated RB1 alleles in retinoblastoma. Hum. Genet. 1994, 94 (5), 491-496.

19. Klutz, M.; Brockmann, D.; Lohmann, D.R. A parent-of-origin effect in two families with retinoblastoma is associated with a distinct splice mutation in the RB1 gene. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2002, 71 (1), 174-179.

20. Sakai, T.; Ohtani, N.; McGee, T.L.; Robbins, P.D.; Dryja, T.P. Oncogenic germ-line mutations in Sp1 and ATF sites in the human retinoblastoma gene. Nature 1991, 353 (6339), 83-86.

21. Otterson, G.A.; Chen, W.D.; Coxon, A.B.; Khleif, S.N.; Kaye, F.J. Incomplete penetrance of familial retinoblastoma linked to germ-line mutations that result in partial loss of RB function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1997, 94 (22), 12036-12040.

22. Dryja, T.P.; Rapaport, J.; McGee, T.L.; Nork, T.M.; Schwartz, T.L. Molecular etiology of low-penetrance retinoblastoma in two pedigrees. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1993, 52 (6), 1122-1128.

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24. Boerkoel, C.F.; Exelbert, R.; Nicastri, C.; Nichols, R.C.; Miller, F.W.; Plotz, P.H.; Raben, N. Leaky splicing mutation in the acid maltase gene is associated with delayed onset of glycogenosis type II. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1995, 56 (4), 887-897.

25. Genuardi, M.; Klutz, M.; Devriendt, K.; Caruso, D.; Stirpe, M.; Lohmann, D.R. Multiple lipomas linked to an RB1 gene mutation in a large pedigree with low penetrance retinoblastoma. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2001, 9 (9), 690-694.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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