References

1. Blackburn, E.H. Telomere states and cell fates. Nature 2000, 408 (6808), 53-56.

2. d'Adda di Fagagna, F.; Reaper, P.M.; Clay-Farrace, L.; Fiegler, H.; Carr, P.; Von Zglinicki, T.; Saretzki, G.; Carter, N.P.; Jackson, S.P. A DNA damage checkpoint response in telomere-initiated senescence. Nature 2003, 426 (6963), 194-198.

3. Harley, C.B.; Futcher, A.B.; Greider, C.W. Telomeres shorten during ageing of human fibroblasts. Nature 1990, 345 (6274), 458-460.

4. Cawthon, R.M.; Smith, K.R.; O'Brien, E.; Sivatchenko, A.; Kerber, R.A. Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. Lancet 2003, 361 (9355), 393-395.

5. Bodnar, A.G.; Ouellette, M.; Frolkis, M.; Holt, S.E.; Chiu, C.P.; Morin, G.B.; Harley, C.B.; Shay, J.W.; Lichtsteiner, S.; Wright, W.E. Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells. Science 1998, 279 (5349), 349-352.

6. Slijepcevic, P. Telomeres and the Control of Cell Division. In Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis; Hughes and Mehmet: Oxford, 2003; 123-146.

7. Hemann, M.T.; Strong, M.A.; Hao, L.Y.; Greider, C.W.

The shortest telomere, not average telomere length, is critical for cell viability and chromosome stability. Cell 2001 Oct 5, 107 (1), 67-77. 12.

8. Zijlmans, J.M.; Martens, U.M.; Poon, S.S.; Raap, A.K.; Tanke, H.J.; Ward, R.K.; Lansdorp, P.M. Telomeres in the mouse have large inter-chromosomal variations in the number of T2AG3 repeats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 13. 1997, 94 (14), 7423-7428.

9. Lansdorp, P.M.; Verwoerd, N.P.; van de Rijke, F.M.; Dragowska, V.; Little, M.T.; Dirks, R.W.; Raap, A.K.; Tanke, H.J. Heterogeneity in telomere length of human 14. chromosomes. Hum. Mol. Genet. 1996, 5 (5), 685-691.

10. Poon, S.S.; Martens, U.M.; Ward, R.K.; Lansdorp, P.M. Telomere length measurements using digital fluorescence microscopy. Cytometry 1999, 36 (4), 267 -278. 15

11. Wong, H.-P.; Slijepcevic, P. Telomere length measurement in mouse chromosomes by a modified Q-FISH

method. Cytogenet. Genome Res. 2004, 205 (2-4), 464470.

Blasco, M.A.; Lee, H.W.; Hande, M.P.; Samper, E.; Lansdorp, P.M.; DePinho, R.A.; Greider, C.W. Telomere shortening and tumor formation by mouse cells lacking telomerase RNA. Cell 1997, 91 (1), 25-34. Martens, U.M.; Zijlmans, J.M.; Poon, S.S.; Dragowska, W.; Yui, J.; Chavez, E.A.; Ward, R.K.; Lansdorp, P.M. Short telomeres on human chromosome 17p. Nat. Genet. 1998, 18 (1), 76-80.

Rufer, N.; Dragowska, W.; Thornbury, G.; Roosnek, E.; Lansdorp, P.M. Telomere length dynamics in human lymphocyte subpopulations measured by flow cytometry. Nat. Biotechnol. 1998, 16 (8), 743-747. Baerlocher, G.M.; Lansdorp, P.M. Telomere length measurements in leukocyte subsets by automated multicolor flow-FISH. Cytometry 2003, 55A (1), 1-6.

FISH—Spectral Karyotyping and Multiplex FISH

University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain

Rhona M. Anderson

MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Didcot, Harwell, Oxfordshire, U.K. Gerrit A. Meijer

VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Natalia D. Sumption

MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Didcot, Harwell, Oxfordshire, U.K.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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