References

1. Emery, A.E.H. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1993.

2. Kunkel, L. Analysis of deletions in DNA from patients with Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Nature 1986, 322 (6074), 73-77.

3. Monaco, A.P.; Bertelson, C.J.; Liechti-Gallati, S.; Moser, H.; Kunkel, L.M. An explanation for the phenotypic differences between patients bearing partial deletions of the DMD locus. Genomics 1988, 2, 90-95.

4. Chamberlain, J.S.; Gibbs, R.; Ranier, J.; Caskey, C. Multiplex PCR for the Diagnosis of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. In PCR Protocols. A Guide to Methods and Applications; Innis, M., Gelfand, D., Sninsky, J., White, T., Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego, 1990; 272-281.

5. Beggs, A.H.; Koenig, M.; Boyce, F.M.; Kunkel, L.M. Detection of 98% of DMD/BMD gene deletions by polymerase chain reaction. Hum. Genet. 1990, 86, 45-48.

6. McCabe, E.R.B.; Towbin, J.; Chamberlain, J.; Baumbach, L.; Witkowski, J.; van Ommen, G.J.B.; Koenig, M.; Kunkel, L.M.; Seltzer, W.K. Complementary DNA probes for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus demonstrate a previously undetectable deletion in a patient with dystro-phic myopathy, glycerol kinase deficiency, and congenital adrenal hypoplasia. J. Clin. Invest. 1989, 83, 95-99.

7. Hagiwara, Y.; Nishio, H.; Kitoh, Y.; Takeshima, Y.; Narita, N.; Wada, H.; Yokohama, M.; Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, M. A novel point mutation (G-1 to T) in a 5' splice donor site of intron 13 of the dystrophin gene results in exon skipping and is responsible for Becker muscular dystrophy. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1994, 54, 53-61.

8. Shiga, N.; Takeshima, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Inoue, K.; Yokota, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Matsuo, M. Disruption of the splicing enhancer sequence within exon 27 of the dystrophin gene by a nonsense mutation induces partial skipping of the exon and is responsible for Becker muscular dystrophy. J. Clin. Invest. 1997, 100, 2204-2210.

9. Koenig, M.; Beggs, A.H.; Moyer, M.; Scherpf, S.; Heindrich, K.; Bettecken, T.; Koenig, M.; Beggs, A.H.; Moyer, M.; Scherpf, S.; Heindrich, K.; Meng, G.; Muller, C.R.; Lindlof, M.; Kaariainen. The molecular basis for Duchenne versus Becker muscular dystrophy: Correlation of severity with type of deletion. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1989, 45, 498-506.

10. Mendell, J.R.; Buzin, C.H.; Feng, J.; Yan, J.; Serrano, C.; Sangani, D.S.; Wall, C.; Prior, T.W.; Sommer, S.S. Diagnosis of Duchenne dystrophy by enhanced detection of small mutations. Neurology 2001, 57, 645-650.

11. Prior, T.W.; Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Burghes, A.H.M.; Bartolo, C.; Sedra, M.S.; Western, L.M.; Mendell, J.R. A missense mutation in the dystrophin gene in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient. Nat. Genet. 1993, 4, 357-360.

12. Lenk, U.; Oexle, K.; Voit, T.; Ancker, U.; Hellner, K.A.; Speer, A.; Hubner, C. A cysteine 3340 substitution in the dystroglycan-binding domain of dystrophin associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mental retardation and absence of the ERG b-wave. Hum. Mol. Genet. 1996, 5, 973-975.

13. Matsuo, M. Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy: From molecular diagnosis to gene therapy. Brain Dev. 1996, 18, 167-172.

14. van Deutekom, J.C.; van Ommen, G.J. Advances in Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy. Nat. Rev. Genet. 2003, 4 (10), 774-783.

15. Ginjaar, I.B.; Kneppers, A.L.; vd Meulen, J.D.; Anderson, L.V.; Bremmer-Bout, M.; van Deutekom, J.C.; Weegenaar, J.; den Dunnen, J.T.; Bakker, E. Dystrophin nonsense mutation induces different levels of exon 29 skipping and leads to variable phenotypes within one BMD family. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2000, 8, 793-796.

16. Prior, T.W.; Bartolo, C.; Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S.; Burghes, A.H.; Mendell, J.R. Nonsense mutations in a Becker muscular dystrophy and an intermediate patient. Hum. Mutat. 1996, 7, 72-75.

17. Melis, M.A.; Muntoni, F.; Cau, M.; Loi, D.; Puddu, A.; Boccone, L.; Mateddu, A.; Cianchetti, C.; Cao, A. Novel nonsense mutation (C ! A nt 10512) in exon 72 of dystrophin gene leading to exon skipping in a patient with a mild dystrophin-opathy. Hum. Mutat. 1998, Suppl. 1, S137-S138.

18. Fajkusova, L.; Lukas, Z.; Tvrdikova, M.; Kuhrova, V.V.; Hajek, J.; Fajkus, J. Novel dystrophin mutations revealed by analysis of dystrophin mRNA: Alternative splicing suppresses the phenotypic effect of a nonsense mutation. Neuromuscul. Dis. 2001, 11, 133-138.

19. Arahata, K.; Ishiura, S.; Ishiguro, T.; Tsukahara, T.; Suhara, Y.; Eguchi, C.; Ishihara, T.; Nonaka, I.; Ozawa, E.; Sugita, H. Immunostaining of skeletal and cardiac muscle surface membrane with antibody against Duchenne muscular dystrophy peptide. Nature 1988, 333, 861-863.

20. Helliwell, T.R.; Ellis, J.M.; Mountford, R.C.; Appleton, R.E.; Morris, G.E. A truncated dystrophin lacking the C-terminal domains is localized at the muscle membrane. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1992, 50, 508-514.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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