References

1. Hochmeister, M.; Eisenberg, A.; Budowle, B.; Binda, S.; Serra, A.; Whelan, M.; Gaugno, D.; Fitz, J.; Dirnhofer, R. The Development of a New Sexual Assault Kit for the Optimization of Collection in Handling and Storage of Physical and Biological Evidence, Proceedings of the First European Symposium on Human Identification, Toulouse, France, 1996; Promega: Madison, WI, 1996.

2. Benecke, M.; Schmitt, C. Five cases of forensic short tandem repeat DNA typing. Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 690-694.

3. Wiegand, P.; Heide, S.; Stiller, D.; Kleiber, M. DNA typing from epithelial cells recovered from the pullover and neck of the victim. Rechtsmedizin 1998, 8, 226228.

4. Hammer, U.; Bulnheim, U.; Karstadt, G.; Meissner, N.; Wegener, R. DNA typing of epidermal cells transferred after physical violence. Rechtsmedizin 1997, 7, 180-183.

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6. Burgoyne, L.A. Solid Medium and Method for DNA Storage. US Patent 5,496,562, 1996.

7. Prinz, M.; Grellner, W.; Schmitt, C. DNA typing of urine samples following several years of storage. Int. J. Leg. Med. 1993, 196, 75-79.

8. Martin, L. STR Typing of Nuclear DNA from Human Fecal Matter Using the Qiagen Quiamp Stool Mini Kit. Twelfth International Promega Symposium on Human Identification, Biloxi, MS, 2001; Promega: Madison, WI, 2001.

9. Van Oorschot, R.A.H.; Jones, M.J. DNA fingerprints from fingerprints. Nature 1997, 387, 767.

10. Stein, C.S.; Kyeck, S.H.; Hennsge, C. DNA typing of fingerprint reagent treated biological stains. J. Forensic Sci. 1996, 41, 1012-1017.

11. Butler, J.M. Forensic DNA Typing: Biology & Technology Behind STR Markers; Academic Press: San Diego, 2001.

12. Benecke, M.; Wells, J. Molecular Techniques for Forensically Important Insects. In Entomological Evidence: Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations; Byrd, J.H., Castner, J.L., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 2000; 341-352.

13. Progress in Forensic Genetics; Brinkmann, B., Carracedo, A., Eds.; Excerpta Medica International Congress Series 1239, Elsevier: Amsterdam, 2003; Vol. 9.

14. De Stefano, F.; Bruni, G.; Casarino, L.; Costa, M.G.; Mannucci, A. Multiplexed DNA markers from cigarette butts in a forensic casework. Adv. Forensic Haemog. 1996, 6, 252-254.

15. Wiegand, P.; Bajanowski, T.; Brinkmann, B. DNA typing of debris from fingernails. Int. J. Leg. Med. 1993, 196, 81-83.

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17. Higuchi, R.; von Beroldingen, C.H.; Sensabaugh, G.F.; Erlich, H.A. DNA typing from single hair. Nature 1988, 332, 543-546.

18. Borowsky, R. Field preservation of fish tissues for DNA fingerprint analysis. Fingerpr. News 1991, 3 (2), 8-9.

19. Van Oorschot, R.A.H.; Szepietowska, I.; Scott, D.L.; Weston, R.K.; Jones, M.K. Retrieval of Genetic Profiles from Touched Objects. In First International Conference on Forensic Human Identification in the Millennium; Forensic Science Service: London, 1999.

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Forensic DNA Typing—Y Chromosome

Lluis Quintana-Murci

Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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