Because of its high level of precision, Invader assays can determine changes in gene expression as low as 1.2-fold.[6] Intraassay coefficients of variation (CVs) are typically less than 10% and range, on average, from 2% to 3%.[4,6] Reading the assays in real time or at multiple time points can extend the dynamic range of detection, which covers three orders of magnitude with a single endpoint read.[4] Signal amplification eliminates the need for target amplification prior to analysis, which, in turn, simplifies sample processing. Genomic DNA obtained from small blood volumes can be used directly in genotyping assays. Invader DNA assays are able to statistically detect as little as 10 ng of genomic DNA (approximately 1500 heterozygous genomic copies);[3] however, a minimum of 100 ng is generally recommended. For RNA assays, sample preparation can be simplified by using unpurified cell lysates directly in the assay. The Invader RNA assays can routinely detect as little as 0.005-0.01 amol RNA target (approximately 3000-6000 copies of RNA transcript or messenger RNA).[6]

Invader assays have the unique ability to tolerate the presence of secondary polymorphisms. Whereas the formation of the proper enzyme substrate is dependent on base pairing at critical positions within the primary probe, other regions may be mismatched. This provides the ability to detect or disregard polymorphisms, which

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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