Significance Of Patenting

Research results in the field of genomics and proteomics frequently have considerable relevance in medical or pharmaceutical applications. For example, a new drug has to cope with many obstacles before it is granted permission for use in the human setting. According to reliable estimates, the downstream process of developing a drug until it achieves regulatory approval costs about $500-800 million. Imitation of scientific and technical results in any field is legal, so long as no issues of unfair competition come up. The only possibility to protect, e.g., a new drug or an application of a known substance in the pharmaceutical field, is to obtain patent protection. In the absence of patent protection, competitors can adopt the results and commercialize the drug without incurring the expense of drug development costs.

A further issue is commercial exploitation of results of basic research, e.g., finding of a target such as a receptor or an enzyme having relevance in patho-physiology or potential application in diagnostics. Such entities are often discovered and validated by universities or nonprofit scientific institutes. Also, these institutions try to obtain return on investment and have to cooperate with large companies having the financial resources for screening ligands interacting with the target for drug development. It goes without saying that these institutions, in particular, need patent protection for their research results.

The relevance of patenting in the field of proteomics and genomics is illustrated by the following figurea:


The figure depicts the number of patent applications containing the keyword ''genomi'' starting 1980 until May 2003. PCT means patent application published as International Patent Application; EP-A means Patent applications published by the European Patent Office (EPO); EP-B refers to the number of published granted European Patents aView this art in color at

and EP is the sum of the foregoing. Patent applications are published 18 months after first filing (priority).

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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