Specificity

As all bacteria have rDNA, ribotyping is theoretically practicable for all bacterial species. In the Enterobacteri-aceae, the presence of 5-7 rDNA operons results in 10-15 bands, with potential for a good level of discrimination between strains of a given species.[10] On the other hand, Mycobacteria have only 1 or 2 rDNA operons and produce few bands on ribotyping with a correspondingly lower level of discrimination.1-11-1 Southern blotting with alternative probes specific to mycobacteria (e.g., IS 6110 for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) has been much more productive for these bacteria.[12] The limited genetic diversity of some important gram-negative pathovars, such as E. coli O157, renders ribotyping less suitable for molecular epidemiology of these.[13] On the other hand, bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Listeria monocytogenes can be effectively subtyped by ribotyping.[14-16] A large proprietary database of EcoR1 ribotypes obtained with the automated system exists for these bacteria. The automated method has been adapted for use with other restriction enzymes (e.g., Pvu2 and Pst1) but is not easily adapted to the other probes used in manual ribotyping protocols. Clearly, most ribotyping methods have been developed for highly specialized purposes, the details of the method being specific to the application. Each method requires validation against a representative collection of the

190-19-1 454 Listeria monocytogenes 190-19-2 455 Listeria monocytogenes 190-19-3 456 Listeria monocytogenes 190-19-4 457 Listeria monocytogenes 190-22-1 463 Listeria monocytogenes 190-22-5 524 Listeria monocytogenes 190-24-5 662 Listeria monocytogenes 190-25-2 511 Listeria monocytogenes 190-32-1 739 Listeria monocytogenes 190-32-2 740 Listeria monocytogenes 190-32-3 741 Listeria monocytogenes 190-153-1 1393 Listeria monocytogenes 190-153-2 1394 Listeria monocytogenes 190-153-3 1395 Listeria monocytogenes 190-153-4 1396 Listeria monocytogenes 190-153-5 1397 Listeria monocytogenes 190-153-6 1454 Listeria monocytogenes 190-153-7 1455 Listeria monocytogenes 190-153-8 1456 Listeria monocytogenes 190-170-4 1473 Listeria monocytogenes 190-170-5 1474 Listeria monocytogenes 190-170-6 1475 Listeria monocytogenes 190-170-7 1477 Listeria monocytogenes 190-170-8 1498 Listeria monocytogenes

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment