Substratum and Arraying Devices for Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays

Protein microarray substrata may be nylon, nitrocellulose, or silanized silica.[31-33] The substratum requirements for protein arrays are as follows: 1) high binding capacity; 2) should not alter the protein structure; and 3) low background signal. Nitrocellulose-coated glass slides are a common substratum for protein arrays. Proteins bind to nitrocellulose via electrostatic interactions in an irreversible manner, limiting the number of probes that can be used with any one set of immobilized proteins.[32,33] The nitrocellulose slide format allows multiple slides to be printed for each set of samples, thus permitting multiplex analysis with a set of antibody probes (Fig. 1). Chromogenic, fluorometric, and luminescent detection methods may be used with an adequate signal/noise ratio.[33,35-44]

Microarray printing technology currently exists in two forms: contact and noncontact devices. Contact printing is accomplished by direct contact between the print head and the substratum. Noncontact printing dispenses a minute volume of sample above the substratum.[34] A comparison of printing devices is shown in Table 1. Selection of a printing device depends on the viscosity of the material to be printed, the throughput required, the space, and the ability to print replicate samples.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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