Symptoms

The symptoms are very variable. There are very mild and nearly asymptomatic but also severe and deadly cases. They are often more severe in elderly people.

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Fig. 1 Geographical distribution of tick-born encephalitis. (Courtesy of M. Bröker and D. Gniel, Chiron Vaccines, Chriron Behring GmbH.) (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

A biphasic course of disease is typical for TBE. The disease starts with symptoms, which are similar to flu: mild temperature, headache, pain in the limbs.

A typical meningo encephalitis may occur in 10% of infected people after a short interval (5-10 days) without symptoms. These are the following symptoms: high temperature; heavy headache; nausea and vomiting; meningeal irritations; occasional numbness or stupor, especially in patients older than 50 years; neurological signs (paralysis, convulsions).

Typical for TBE is persistent symptomatic over months, especially in elderly people, although there is a complete recovery in most cases. Persistent headache, weakness of concentration, and mild paralysis are very seldom after disease recovery.

The symptoms of JE are also very variable. Most infections are asymptomatic. There are severe cases especially in small children and elderly people with the following symptoms: high temperature, headache, stiffness of the neck and other meningeal signs, vomiting,

Fig. 3 Geographical distribution of St. Louis encephalitis.

(View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Fig. 3 Geographical distribution of St. Louis encephalitis.

(View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

stupor, disorientation, paralysis, disturbance of reflexes. Temperature drops in most cases after the 10th day of disease, but the infection very often leads to persistent neurological and psychical damages (tremor, convulsions, paralysis, mental, and behavior weakness). The mortality is nearly 10%.

The following symptoms are typical for SLE: high temperature, headache, stiffness of the neck, vomiting, shunning the light, confusion, tremor, increase of unconsciousness until coma, changes in liquor (pleocytosis, increase of protein). Complications are pneumonia or gastrointestinal hemorrhages. The mortality rate is nearly 10-20%, especially in patients older than 50 years. Causes of death are failure of the kidneys or coma. Encephalitis can lead to persistent damages after enduring the disease, e.g., mild paralysis, defects of speech, memory weak-

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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