T Pertenue

T. pertenue causes yaws (also known as frambesia, bouba, pian, parangi, or paru). The disease is transmitted nonsexually, by direct skin contact, with most patients infected in childhood. Yaws is characterized by skin ulceration and sometimes bone involvement. Yaws affects populations in humid tropical parts of West and Central Africa, in Southeast Asia, and in some Pacific Islands (Table 1). Sporadic infections are found in South America, primarily in Colombia, Venezuela, Haiti, and Brazil. However, the effects of intervention can be dramatic. For example, a 1988 survey performed in northern Ecuador found that 16.5% of the population had clinical symptoms of yaws and that 96.3% of the population was seropositive. As of 1998, after 10 years of community intervention, the TP-PA seropositivity rate had fallen to 3.5% in the same region, with no clinical yaws cases reported recent-ly.[27] Although sporadic cases in rural areas or in the tropical rain forests still occur, this report illustrates that an intensive prevention and treatment program can eliminate yaws.

Table 1 Characteristics of treponemes and geographic distribution

Disease

T. pallidum syphilis

T. pertenue yaws

T. endemicum bejel

T. carateum pinta

Natural infection in host

Systemic Skin involvement Bone involvement Sexually transmitted/congenital Geographic distribution

South America

Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador Mexico, Haiti Africa

Ghana, Benin, Togo, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Cote d'lvoire, Botswana Sahel countries (Mali) Middle East

Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq Pacific Island

Papua New Guinea Southeast Asia

Indonesia Europe

World Wide Laboratory animals Rabbits Hamster Guinea pigs Primates

Cosmopolitan

Warm humid tropics

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Botswana

Arid subtropical or temperate

Warm arid tropical Americas

Yugoslavia

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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