Fig. 1 Overview of the two major progression pathways described for bladder cancer outlining some of the main genetic alterations associated with these pathways. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

tissues. The most widespread use of this technology to date has been the analysis of gene expression. There is an increasingly broad range of additional applications for microarrays, including genotyping polymorphisms and mutations, determining the sites of DNA-binding proteins, and identifying structural alterations using arrayed comparative genome hybridization (CGH). Powerful methods for comprehensive analysis of gene and protein expression patterns utilize not only microarray formats, but also differential display,[6] serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE),[7] protein composition-based approaches such as antibody microarrays,[8] high-throughput mass spectral analysis, or 2-D gel analysis.[9] Among these high-throughput techniques, DNA microarrays are the most utilized tools for target identification.

The development and implementation of high-throughput array technologies to primary human tumors is changing clinical management of patients with cancer. The histopathological diagnosis and classification of tumors are now being complemented by these comprehensive procedures, providing novel diagnostic, predictive, and therapeutic targets for the cancer patient. To the simplicity of the study of a single molecular marker, we may be able to integrate the complexity of multiple biological determinants, participating in signaling pathways and biological networks. Comprehensive information may, in turn, modify empirical clinical treatments for individualized mechanism-based therapies, as well as diagnostic and predictive molecular signatures for the management of patients with bladder cancer. The concept of individual biomarkers of diagnostic and/or prognostic utility is being progressively changed by the concept of cluster of genes or gene profiles characteristic of recurrence, progression, or survival.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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