Taxonomy And Description Of The Pathogen

Legionellae belong to the Gammaproteobacteria and are non-spore-forming gram-negative rods. To date, 42 species and 65 serogroups of Legionella have been described. Legionella pneumophila with its 15 serogroups is the main pathogen and accounts for more than 90% of infections, with serogroup 1 being the most common one. Several other legionellae, such as Legionella micdadei, Legionella bozemanii, and Legionella dumoffii, also cause disease.[1]

Legionellae are intracellularly replicating bacteria. They live primarily in environmental aquatic habitats and replicate within protozoa, such as amoeba and flagellates. Upon inhalation by humans of aerosolized water from contaminated tap waters, air-conditioning systems, or cooling towers, Legionella replicates in monocytes, alveolar macrophages, and epithelial cells.[1] In vitro, legionellae show fastidious growth characteristics.

Highest concentrations of legionellae are found in man-made hot-water systems because legionellae grow best at temperatures between 37°C and 50°C and can even tolerate temperatures above 60°C.[2]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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