The Virus

Rotavirus is a medium-sized (70-80 nm) unenveloped round virus (Fig. 1), with a characteristic wheel-shaped morphology (rota is Latin for a wheel). Rotavirus is a genus within the family Reoviridae.[1,2] Its genome consists of 11 segments of linear double-stranded (ds) RNA which range in size from 0.6 to 3.3 kbp.[3,4] Each segment encodes one or more polypeptides (Table 1). The polypeptides expressed are either nonstructural (NSP1-5) or structural (VP, virus proteins) proteins. The nonstructural proteins are involved in virus replication and are found only in the infected cell. The mature virion has a trilayered structure (Fig. 2). The inner layer is composed of 11 dsRNA segments surrounded by VP1, VP2, and VP3. The middle layer or inner capsid is composed of VP6 and the outer layer is made up of two proteins VP4 and VP7. VP4 is cleaved by proteolysis to produce VP5* and VP8* and if this does not occur the virus is not fully infective. There are 60 spikes or knobs that extend 120 A from the virion surface.[3] The virion has icosahedral symmetry with 132 surface capsomers and a triangulation number T13. There are 132 large channels that traverse both the inner and outer capsid layers.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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