Therapeutic Approaches Using Polyplexes

Table 2 lists an example of therapeutic concepts evaluated in animal models. Using the first targeted in vivo gene delivery system developed,[13] Wu and colleagues demonstrated hepatocyte-specific gene transfer of the LDL receptor in a rabbit animal model for familial hypercho-lesterolemia. This resulted in a temporary amelioration of the disease phenotype.[25] In analogous manner, the albumin serum levels of Nagase analbuminemic rats were transiently raised by human albumin gene delivery.[14]

For cancer, Gautam and colleagues[18] successfully delivered PEI polyplexes expressing the p53 gene as aerosol through the airways to established melanoma lung metastases, which, especially in combination with 9-nitrocamptothecin chemotherapy, resulted in tumor growth inhibition.

Polyplexes with appropriate surface shielding can target the tumor tissue and exploit the unique neo-vasculature for extravasation from the blood stream (compare Fig. 1) and delivery of therapeutic genes into the tumor tissue. Repeated systemic application of transferrin- and/or PEG-shielded polyplexes encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) into tumor-bearing mice induced expression in tumor cells close to the feeding blood vessels, which triggers TNF-mediated destruction of the tumor vasculature, tumor necrosis, and inhibition of tumor growth as demonstrated in several

Table 2 Examples for therapeutic strategies using polyplexes

Polyplex system

Delivery mode

Gene (target organ)

Therapeutic result



Intravenous (rat)

Human albumin (liver)

Human albumin in serum


Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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