The parasite is transmitted through the fecal/oral route by ingestion of oocysts from water, food, or direct person-to-person or animal-to-person contact. Water is the main route of transmission, including drinking water, wells, surface and ground water, rivers, lakes, and swimming pools. Seepage of effluents from humans and cattle into drinking water supplies are the major risk factors for humans. The oocyst wall is highly resistant to environmental stresses. Oocysts can persist for up to 6 months in water and for 2-3 months in soil. Conventional chlorine inactivation strategies used in water treatment utilities are inefficient against this pathogen. Greater success in disinfection is obtained with combined disinfection strategies, such as successive ozone and chlorine treatments1-8-1 or ultraviolet light.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.