detect each of the eight astrovirus serotypes (IDEIA Astrovirus, Dako Diagnostics, United Kingdom), and this has been shown to have a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98.6%.
Detection of virus genome by RT-PCR is estimated to detect as few as 10 to 100 astrovirus particles. A number of different targets have been used. One strategy employs primers (Mon244 and Mon245) which amplify a 413-nt fragment of ORF2 (Table 1), and if this is negative, primers Mon340/348 which amplify a 289-nt fragment of
ORF1a are used. For genotyping, fragments of
ORF1a, ORF1b, and ORF2 are amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. A novel hanging drop single-tube nested RT-PCR method has recently been devised. Recombinant antigens have been used to determine the seropreva-lence of astrovirus infections. This is of little value for acute diagnosis.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.