Type III Maternal Uniparental Disomy

Most of the deletion-negative PWS cases (about 25% of all cases) are due to maternal uniparental disomy 15 (UPD 15) inheritance of both chromosome 15s from the mother with resulting deficiency of paternally derived alleles in the imprinted 15q11q13 region.[9,10] Paternal UPD 15 is also observed and leads to Angelman syndrome (see Angelman Syndrome). However, the paternal UPD is not as frequent as the maternal (only 2-3% of the AS cases are the result of UPD). It appears that the mechanism of UPD occurrence differs in PWS, and AS maternal UPD in PWS occurred in most cases in meiosis I, whereas most paternal UPD cases that resulted in AS occurred postzygotically.[11] Although the recurrence risk for PWS in cases of UPD (Type Ilia) is generally low, chromosomal rearrangements in the parents involving chromosome 15 (Type IIIb) may increase the risk for maternal UPD 15 and PWS in the offspring.[12]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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