U2629c

Clr

aE. coli numbering.

laboratory strain; C, clinical strain. c+L4, +L22, associated alterations in ribosomal proteins L4 or L22.

dThe phenotypes conferred to the different type of macrolide antibiotics are given when these were specified in the original articles. The lack of a notation does not imply sensitivity but indicates that no specific phenotype was reported. M, macrolides; M14, M15, M16, 14-, 15- 16-membered macrolides; L, lincosamides; SB, streptogramin B; Sa-Sb, streptogramin combination; K, ketolides; ery, erythromycin; clr, clarithromycin; azi, azithromycin; cli, clindamycin; Q-D, quinupristin-dalfopristin; tel, telithromycin; ND, nondetermined.

aE. coli numbering.

laboratory strain; C, clinical strain. c+L4, +L22, associated alterations in ribosomal proteins L4 or L22.

dThe phenotypes conferred to the different type of macrolide antibiotics are given when these were specified in the original articles. The lack of a notation does not imply sensitivity but indicates that no specific phenotype was reported. M, macrolides; M14, M15, M16, 14-, 15- 16-membered macrolides; L, lincosamides; SB, streptogramin B; Sa-Sb, streptogramin combination; K, ketolides; ery, erythromycin; clr, clarithromycin; azi, azithromycin; cli, clindamycin; Q-D, quinupristin-dalfopristin; tel, telithromycin; ND, nondetermined.

II of 23S rRNA has been rarely described in laboratory strains of E. coli and S. pneumoniae.[3,13] An increase of the ketolide telithromycin MIC was described. Recently, mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 were associated with resistance to macrolides and related antibiotics in laboratory or clinical isolates of S. aureus,[14] M. pneumoniae,[11] or Streptococcus species including S. pneumoniae.[5] The mutations are clustered in conserved sequences of L4 and L22 proteins, regions that mediate the binding to 23S rRNA or contribute to the formation of the tunnel wall. As crystallographic studies showed no direct interaction between ribosomal proteins and macrolides,[1] resistance presumably results from an indirect conformational change in the tunnel region that forms a major portion of the macrolide binding site.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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