Y pestis Assays

Classically, the identification of Y. pestis has been based on Gram's stain, biochemical reactions, and reactivity of the organism with anticapsular antibody. The first and most common molecular target for the identification of Y. pestis is the pla locus (Table 3). Although not reported in the literature, false positive reactions have been seen from environmental samples (Dr. Joan Gebhardt, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, per sonal communication). In addition, atypical strains of Y. pestis that lack pla have been found to be virulent in animal models.[14] The second locus used for specific identification of Y. pestis is the capsular gene caf1. However, caf1 -negative strains have been reported to be virulent.[15]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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