Orchid Growing Training Course
Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a major constituent of vanilla beans, the fruit of an orchid (Vanilla planifola, Vanilla pompona, or Vanilla tahitensis). Vanillin is most active as against molds and nonlactic Grampositive bacteria (87). Vanillin at 1500 g mL significantly
A large variety of plants with short life spans have flown in space algae, carrots, anise, pepper, wheat, pine, oat, mung beans, cress, lentils, corn, soybeans, lettuce, cucumbers, maize, sunflowers, peas, cotton, onion, nutmeg, barley, spindle trees, flax, orchids, gladiolas, daylilies, and tobacco. Due to this variety, for the most part, observations on plants exposed to microgravity have been anecdotal. It has been demonstrated repeatedly that plants do grow in microgravity. However, whether plants can grow and develop normally over several generations remains to be determined.
SNP typing is already in production use for human identity applications. A modified version of Genetic Bit Analysis (Nikiforov et al. 1994), called SNP-IT that runs on the SNPstream UHT platform (Bell et al. 2002), has been used by Orchid Cellmark (Dallas, TX) to genotype multiple SNP markers for paternity applications and examine highly degraded samples from mass disasters (see Chapter 24). The forensic DNA typing community will likely hear more about these SNP markers and assays in the future.
Frugivore and pollinator species use only a subset of the available plant species, because they respond differentially to the chemical composition of their food source (e.g., the ratio of sucrose hexose in nectar the presence of tannins and secondary metabolites in fruits), and there are also physical constraints on mutualistic links that are imposed by the size and morphology of the consumer and the resource. This size-dependent coupling can be very tight, especially where mutualistic links have coevolved for a long time, as is true, for instance, of many orchids and their specialist pollinators. The ratio between gape width and fruit size is important in Neotropical birds (Wheelwright, 1985) and Canarian frugivorous lizards (Valido and Nogales, unpublished manuscript) small animals cannot use large fruits (i.e., body size influences the linkage level (the number of links per species)). Similarly, the range of beak corolla tube length ratios determines linkage level among long-beaked...
Several private laboratories in the United States have validated mtDNA procedures and offer mtDNA testing on a fee basis. These laboratories include Mitotyping Technologies, LLC (State College, Pennsylvania), ReliaGene Technologies, Inc. (New Orleans, Louisiana), Bode Technology Group (Springfield, Virginia), Orchid Cellmark (Dallas, Texas), the University of North Texas Health Sciences Center DNA Identity Lab (Ft. Worth, Texas), and Laboratory Corporation of America (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). In addition, the Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (Rockville, Maryland) has a consultative services branch called AFDILcs that performs contract testing of civilian mtDNA cases. These laboratories typically charge around 2000 per sample for mtDNA testing in order to sequence the 610 nucleotides in HV1 and HV2.
The first headspace technique used to collect the scent of a flower was a static technique developed by Dodson and Hill in 1966 (8), who were trying to identify the aroma chemicals responsible for attracting Euglossine bees to several species of orchids. They placed the orchid in a sealed jar. After 30 minutes, a gaseous sample was removed with a syringe and injected directly into a GC. They were able to identify the different components of the orchid's scent using this headspace analysis technique. Their simple experiments started a new path of research that ultimately transformed the approach of fragrance scientists studying flower scents.
In addition, bizarre FCM histograms are obtained when nuclei isolated from somatic tissues (i.e. roots, stems, leaves) of some temperate orchids, such as Dac-tylorhiza, Gymnadenia, and Orchis, are run (J. Suda et al., unpublished data). They are composed of several peaks arranged in an endopolyploidy-like fashion. However, the increase in nuclear DNA content deviates from double and actual peak ratios vary from about 1.35 (Orchis tridentata) to 1.95 (various Ophrys). This coef- Fig. 5.6 Fluorescence histograms of nuclei isolated from leaf tissue of karyologically verified tetraploid, 2n 4x 40 (panel A), and octoploid, 2n 8x 80 (panel B), plants of Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae), with peaks arranged in endopolyploidy-like fashion. The species contains several classes of nuclei showing a non-proportional increase in nuclear DNA content (peak ratios are 1 1.74 3.15 and 1 1.58 2.60 for tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes, respectively). Nuclei were stained with propidium iodide and Fig....
Amongst angiosperms, a great variety of developmental pathways produce endosperms of different size and form (Lopes and Larkins 1993 Baroux et al. 2002b). In some species, the endosperm is the major nutrient storage tissue of the developing seedling and is maintained in the mature seed. This persistent endosperm is found in some monocotyledonous species, e.g. the cereals,but is essentially absent in others, e.g. the orchids. In contrast, many dicotyledonous species have a transient endosperm, which is consumed by the developing embryo,with the mature seed containing only one or a few endosperm cell layers (Maheshwari 1950 Vijayaraghavan and Prabhakar 1984). The endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the transient type and endosperm development starts after central cell fertilization with a series of syncytial nuclear divisions. The endosperm forms three distinct domains the micropylar domain, which surrounds the developing embryo, the central peripheral domain, and the chalazal...
Flower vegetables such as cauliflower and broccoli are quite popular but the fresh market opportunities are limited by their poor post-harvest life, especially in broccoli. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) deteriorates rapidly following harvest and requires refrigeration immediately after picking in the field. Ethylene has been proved to play a crucial role in the control of senescence in many flowers such as carnation and orchids (Woltering et al., 1995, Borochov and Woodson, 1989, Woodson et al., 1992). Transgenic petunias and carnations with impaired ethylene production or ethylene sensitivity show a longer vase life (Gubrium et al., 2000, Bovy et al., 1999). Broccoli produces a significant amount of ethylene after harvest and this has a strong influence on the rate of senescence. In order to manipulate the production of ethylene by the floret, Henzi et al. (1999) produced transgenic broccoli plants carrying antisense copies of a tomato ACC oxidase (ACO) gene. Transgenic...
Sacks of fern-specific soil, usually containing various combinations of peat, sterilized compost, and perhaps sand, pumice, and or perlite, are easily purchased from most garden centers and are in general ready to use. I find many somewhat heavy, however, and prefer to cut them with a gritty amendment, so as to improve drainage. Well-washed pumice is always excellent, but perlite (which I find unaesthetic) and other inorganic additives may be used as well. Some growers amend with an orchid media. Assorted ferns share the stage with orchids at Longwood Gardens. Assorted ferns share the stage with orchids at Longwood Gardens.
The systems available and in use at this time include reverse dot blots (Inno-LiPA CFTR33 Probe Array, Innogenetics Linear Array CF Gold 1.0, Roche), amplification refractory mutation detection system (ARMS Elucigene CF29, Orchid), and the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA CF V3.0, Abbott Celera). More recent additions to the CFTR testing arena include the invader assay (Third Wave Technologies) and various microarray platforms (e.g., Nanochip CFTR, Nanogen). Other emerging technologies include matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (Sequenom) and real-time PCR (Light-Typer, Roche). In addition, a handful of research and clinical laboratories offer complete sequencing of the CFTR gene, which can be used to identify rare mutations and polymorphisms and resolve ambiguities not defined by the allele-specific methods. 13 Several of the more
Cellmark Diagnostics, now Orchid Cellmark, a forensic DNA testing laboratory, provides a proficiency test to help ensure on-going laboratory quality. Their International Quality Assessment Scheme (IQAS) DNA Proficiency Test Program is designed for all laboratories conducting forensic DNA analysis. The proficiency tests consist of simulated forensic evidence case samples that are distributed four times a year. The Cellmark tests include questioned bloodstain and semen stain evidence along with known samples of blood. For more information on Orchid Cellmark, visit their web site www.cellmark-labs.com.
In addition to the facultative necrotrophic abilities of fairy ring fungi, other agarics, e.g. P. semilanceata, are able to colonize healthy cortical tissues of grasses but without clear evidence of any deleterious symptoms in the host (Keay and Brown, 1990). Similarly colonization of grass roots has been observed under field or microcosm conditions by species such as Melanoleuca grammopodia and Con-ocybe dunensis (McKay, 1968). In both there was some evidence of host specificity, with P. semilanceata exhibiting a preference for Agrostis tenuis and Poa annua over L. perenne, and infection rates by basidiomycete (clamped) hyphae being much higher for Ammophila arenaria than other sand dune grasses. Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph Rhizoctonia solani) is commonly isolated from grassland and arable soil (Garrett, 1951 Warcup and Talbot, 1962) and is a capable cellulolytic saprotroph. It is also an economically important necrotrophic pathogen in grassland, causing various diseases (e.g....
Work on, or they pick certain plants as best for particular tests. In part, it is because of practical concerns (e.g., a need for plants with short life spans to match short spaceflights) or a desire to see whether a variety of possible foodstuffs would do well. A few of the plants types sent so far have included algae, carrots, anise, pepper, wheat, pine, oat, mung beans, cress, lentils, corn, soybeans, lettuce, cucumbers, maize, sunflowers, peas, cotton, onion, nutmeg, barley, spindle trees, flax, orchids, gladiolas, daylilies, and tobacco.
As a definition of mycorrhizae, Smith and Read (1997) proposed a symbiosis in which an external mycelium of a fungus supplies soil derived nutrients to a plant root. Mycorrhizae are further divided into six types based on anatomical characteristics, which are (a) arbuscular mycor-rhizae (AM), (b) ectomycorrhizae, (c) orchid mycorrhizae, (d) ericoid mycorrhizae, (e) monotropoid mycorrhizae, and (f) arbutoid mycorrhizae. Some plants have requirement for mycorrhizae in order to complete their life cycle. Mycor-rhizae may influence host plant survival in regeneration niches and mycorrhizae can also increase seed production, seed quality, and host and offspring vigor. Some types of mycorrhizae enhance host plant resistance against severe environmental conditions. The most widely studied and most-commonly encountered mycorrhizal systems are the ectomycorrhizae and arbuscular mycorrhizae.
Osmunda roots are black, fibrous, and wiry and are popularly shredded for use in specialized potting mixes designed for orchids and assorted epiphytes. They thread through the trunklike rhizomes that support the stubble of persistent old stipe bases. The stipe is frequently winged. The new growth is fleetingly downy, a down that is welcomed by hummingbirds for lining their nests. Fall color is yellow.
Four broad types exist the vesicular-arbuscular- (VAM) or arbuscular- (AMF), orchid-, ericoid-, and ecto- mycorrhizae. The VAM or AMF generally occupy environments where phosphorus is the main growth limiting nutrient. They dominate forests in tropical climates, but some temperate trees such as sycamore, ash, and poplars have AM, and some such as willow can form both AM and ectomycorrhizal associations. Ectomycorrhizae, however, are supreme in forests on moder, mull, or brown earth soils in temperate regions of moderate latitude and altitude (e.g., Read 1991), and in relatively infertile soils particularly where nitrogen and phosphorus uptake is curtailed. The ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium sheaths root cortical cells, forming a Hartig net, and extends through the litter and surface soil layers forming a foraging, ramifying network. The substantial mycelial investment involved implies that prolonged associations tend to occur. The biology, ecology, and biotechnological application of...
Schizaea pusilla, the curly grass fern, is noteworthy not as a candidate for the landscape but as an exotic attraction for curious plantfolks and botanical tourists in the Pinelands of New Jersey, Long Island, and similar but more isolated sites on the eastern North American seaboard. Minute squiggles of curled threads, most certainly unrecognizable as fern fronds, swirl in wet peat bogs in the company of exotic orchids and assorted showy, carnivorous companions. The tiny 2- to 4-in. (5- to 10-cm) fertile heads, appearing in midsummer, stand upright and look like the closed petite jaws on a Venus fly trap (Dionaea muscipula). A good viewpoint for visitors is at the Websmill Bog site in southern New Jersey.
Trichomanes reniforme (kidney-shaped) is one of Mother Nature's gifts of elegance to New Zealand where it is an endemic filmy fern and as such only one cell thick. But what a filmy fern it is. The long-creeping rhizomes produce brilliant green, round to kidney-shaped, 3-in. (7.5-cm), translucent garlands of fronds. Sori held in distinctive tubular indusia stand shoulder to shoulder trimming the pinnae margins. Often in the company of native orchids, the species forms thick curtains on trees and floors of damp forests, and carpets rocks throughout the country. It seems tolerant of most every habitat except, regrettably, those of cultivated gardens. It is a must see for fern lovers traveling to New Zealand. Attempts at cultivation are attended with hopeful expectations, but, as with most filmy ferns, usually result in short-lived displays of struggling and straggling bits and pieces of the desired fern. Give it instead the attention of your camera along with your respectful admiration.
Belvisia spicata is quite a lot of fun for its nudey, possum-tail-like attachment, a foot (30 cm) or more long, at the end of each simple frond. The underside of the tail is heavily coated with cinnamon-colored spores. Similar to B. mucronata, a species described in Encyclopaedia of Ferns (Jones 1987), B. spicata is native to old duff-covered tree branches in Malaysia, tropical Africa, Sri Lanka, Indochina, Queensland, New Caledonia, Luzon, Fiji, and Tahiti. I grow it on a shingle of tree fern wood in morning sun and afternoon shade, where it is watered every day in warm sunny weather and is fertilized every couple of weeks along with the rest of the fern-shingle garden (78 orchids, ferns, and others hung on a screen of bamboo-like runo grass) using a 15-15-30 wettable powder with added trace elements well diluted. (Description by George Schenk.)
Shingles (also known as slabs or plaques) cut from tree fern trunks and usually sold as mounts for epiphytic orchids serve equally well as supports for epiphytic ferns and fern relatives including Drynaria, Lycopodium, Belvisia, Pyrrosia, Asplenium nidus, Polypodium, and Davallia.
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