Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

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Functiona Plant Ecoloqy

Soil and Plant Analysis in Sustainable Agriculture and Environment, edited by Teresa Hood and J. Benton Jones, Jr. Sustainable Agriculture and the International Rice-Wheat System, edited by Rattan Lal, Peter R. Hobbs, Norman Uphoff, and David O. Hansen Plant Toxicology, Fourth Edition, edited by Bertold Hock

Conclusion Of Amino Acids

Continued mechanization of agricultural practices will occur where it is economically feasible, and draft animals will be replaced on those farms that can justify maintenance and use of two- or four-wheeled tractor power. On steep, inaccessible, or terraced hillsides, and on mixed farms where farm size and scale of crop production are small, animal power is still a better option than motorized power to supplement manual labor. On small farms of less than 3 ha, animal power can compete economically with gasoline-fueled tractors. Farmers using animal power will have to cope with competition for their land from a growing human population and increasing pressure on natural resources. This is likely to lead to the cultivation of more marginal land and greater use of animals for multiple purposes (e.g., work and milk or

Mass production of food

Those who support the theory that mass-food production increases food safety risks often point to the increase in concentration of animal production (particularly in developed countries) and claim that large-scale confinement operations and higher densities of food animals increase risks of disease. For example, in large-scale production units, infection of one animal can lead to wider contamination through exposure of other animals (Unnevehr and Roberts, 2002). And in many developed countries, large poultry flocks are reared in communal housing - a practice that leads to large numbers of birds having common risk profiles (Saker et al., 2004). The implication is that flocks with less genetic diversity may be more uniformily susceptible to certain diseases. Higher densities of farm animals also may pose steeper challenges for disposal of manure and other wastes to minimize the contamination of water, farm animals, and agricultural land. Chapter 4 more fully discusses the trends in...

Forbs And Shrubs As Components Of Natural Ecosystems

Forbs and shrubs also contribute to special niche markets, allowing for value-added agricultural products, even where improved pastures are possible. An example is the Hyblean region of southeastern Italy. 2 Here pastures typically contain 30 40 plant species, with grasses and legumes being only a small component. Cheese produced in this region, Ragusano cheese, was traditionally made from milk of cows grazing in these pastures. As herds moved to total mixed rations and diets based on monoculture to increase milk yields, cheese

Research And Development And Future Trends

Taiwan has identified food science and technology as one of the major fields of national research and development (R&D) programs in the midseventies. The policy was formulated primarily not to enhance the international trade values of agricultural products, but to improve the nutrition and safety of foods as well as to enhance the economic values of agricultural resources so as to improve the rural economy. Since then the R&D capabilities at academic and commercial institutions have been strengthened along with the establishment of the Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFoST), an academic society supported by all For practical on-the-job training, the Food Industry Research and Development Institute (FIRDI) located at Hsin-chu (northern Taiwan), which was originally established under the sponsorship of the Canned Food Exporters' Association in the early sixties but is now a government-funded foundation, plays a major role. In addition, FIRDI provides contractual services on...

Research And Development

The federal government spends 170 million Swiss francs for agricultural research and extension service, approximately 20 of which is allocated for food processing research. Therefore, public funding for food research amounts to approximately 20 million Swiss francs. Some aspects of the research projects are operated on a joint venture basis with industry. Hochschulen Waedenswil and Sion (applied research in food technology and biotechnology) Swiss Agricultural Research Stations, Bern (dairy technology), Changins (plant products including wine), Posieux (meat products), Reckenhoz (plant products), and Waedenswil (fruits, vegetables, and wine) Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Bern University of Berne (section for food chemistry), University of Lausanne (group for food chemistry), and University of Zurich (Institute of Veterinary Hygiene)

Economic Importance Of Coffee

Coffee, a significant factor in international trade for about 185 years, is among the leading agricultural products in international trade along with wheat, corn, and soybeans. The total world exportable production of green coffee in the 1997-1998 growing season is approximately 81.7 million bags (Table 1). This compares with a total production of about 107.5 million bags, the difference being internal consumption. Table 2 shows imports and consumption data.

Nationwide Household Food Consumption Surveys

In addition to the periodic nationwide surveys of households, the USDA has conducted smaller methodological or special-purpose surveys of food consumption. More precise methods evolved as various problems were investigated (8). For example, several studies addressed survey methodology issues such as food discard measurement, questionnaire design and wording, and interviewer training and compared the food inventory-record and food list-recall methods of data collection, confirming the decision to adopt the list-recall technique for use in future surveys (16-21). Other studies (22,23) explored techniques for collecting dietary data from individuals. The 1950s and early 1960s saw widespread concern for disadvantaged and low-income families, and the Pilot Food Stamp Program was initiated in 1961 in eight economically depressed areas. A before-and-after study of food consumption and dietary levels in an urban and a rural area showed that the Food Stamp Program increased the purchase of...

Recent Usda Food Consumption Surveys

Current nationwide food surveys conducted by USDA's Agricultural Research Service encompass two types of surveys surveys of foods eaten by individuals both at home and away from home and surveys of attitudes and knowledge about healthy eating, about diet and health relationships, and about dietary guidance. A third type of survey that measured food used by households and the costs of those foods has been discontinued although results from those surveys are still used. Results from these three types of surveys are used for a variety of purposes. Predict demand for agricultural products and marketing facilities Methodology research has always been important in planning the increasingly complex food consumption surveys at the USDA. Most surveys have contained a component to improve methods in future surveys as well as to evaluate food consumption of the sample under study. Such studies build on earlier experience and findings (8). To meet the objectives of improving the accuracy and...

Sterilization Of Food

Bacteria, yeasts and molds in foods, such as meat, fish and agricultural products, are sterilized by high pressure treatment at 400 - 600 MPa. The pressurization of mandarin or orange juices at 300 - 400 MPa for 10 min is enough to sterilize vegetative microorganic cells, although spores of Bacillus sp. are not killed. This retains good taste and flavor of the juice and allows to store it at room temperature for 5 months. When pressure was applied at 45 C, the results were considerably better than that at the room temperature (6-10).

Breed Comparison Research

Department of Agriculture and various state Agricultural Experiment Stations have devoted substantial resources to genetic comparisons of breeds of beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, and sheep during the last half of the 20th century. Published reports of these comparisons appear in numerous places in the scientific literature. Attempts to summarize much of this research have been made. 7-12 The research clearly shows that there are substantial differences between breeds, suggesting that livestock producers have a wide variety from which to choose.

The Plan Of The Revised Edition

From the publishing world in the interval between my sending in corrected page proofs and the actual appearance of the book in November 1997. Soon the book was lumped in with a package of rather technical titles in food science, sold back and forth through several publishers several times, and never came to the notice of many potential readers in agricultural science, molecular biology or philosophy. It was reviewed by only one scholarly journal, and I am amazed that any readers seem to have found it at all. For the most part, I am satisfied that most of the philosophy in the book is as relevant and applicable today as it was in 1997. As such, simply getting a new life and a fair hearing for the original book is a major part of my motivation for undertaking a revised edition.

Gender Roles in Economics

Throughout Spain, the sexual division of labor or leisure does not divide the sexes on the basis of their ability to own or manage property. Local traditions may dictate the disposition of different kinds of property, especially in stem family farm areas, but women in most cases can be heirs to estates just as Spanish women hold noble titles and can inherit the crown.

Government Regulations

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), which was issued in 1972 and amended in 1988, covers pesticides used on raw agricultural products. The FDA, however, is responsible for enforcing tolerances for pesticide residues that end up in food products, such as ethylene dibromide used in grain products.

General References

White, Jr. and J. C. Underwood, Maple Syrup and Honey, in G. E. Inglett, ed., Symposium Sweeteners, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1974. C. O. Willits and C. H. Hills, eds., Maple Syrup Producers Manual, Agricultural Handbook No. 134, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Washington, D.C., 1976. Enzyme Technology, in L. B. Wingard, Jr., E. Katchalski-Katzir, and L. Goldstein, eds., Applied Biochemistry and Bioengineering, Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1979.

Goals Of Agriculture Research

Production of foods derived from animals has a major impact on the U.S. agricultural economy. Annual cash receipts of 93 billion from livestock and poultry products account for about 50 of all agricultural products. The main components of this program are designed to identify and use livestock and poultry with appropriate genotypes that will have a major impact on the quality of animal products used for food, international competitiveness, and efficiency of production. Integrated Information for Animal-Production Systems. The overwhelming amount of information about animal-production efficiency is difficult to use without the aid of computer-based technology. This technology application is needed to improve management decisions and strategies that will yield the greatest economic returns. New-generation computer models are needed for evaluating production options. Decision aids are needed to integrate the components of animal production in modular forms compatible...

Water Buffalo Reproduction Management

Buffalo reproduction is an important issue, which has been the focus of many studies. The water buffalo has a reputation for being a sluggish breeder, but the average animal is so poorly fed that its reproductive performance is unrepresentative of its capabilities. 1 Owing to better conditions of care, nutrition, and management, the river buffalo generally has a better reproductivity than the swamp buffalo. Buffalo and cattle differ in several reproductive characteristics, including seasonal reproduction, silent estrus, delayed puberty, long postpartum ovarian inactivity, and, on the whole, fertility in females. There are also documental distinctions between swamp and river buffalo for reproductivity. 2 Reproductive efficiency of the buffalo tends to be lower, in developing countries, seen in family farms that do not have a bull or in large-scale farms, when visible identification of estrus and artificial insemination (AI) are practiced. However, many farms can achieve a success rate...

Vertical integration of agricultural production

The inadvertent selecting of microbial strains for antibiotic or antiviral resistance through prophylactic use can accelerate the natural evolution of newer strains. Over-applying and spreading animal waste on crop or pasture land can contaminate agricultural land with these newer strains. From there, these new strains can be transported into surface or ground waters and introduced into human settings (JETACAR, 1999). Pathogens originating within a confined operation or inadvertently introduced into a confined operation (through human contact, feed, contaminated implements, or other means) can be retransmitted through the spreading or disposal of the waste on land.

Historical Background

The immutable natures of all plants and animals in fact have been changing constantly (or perishing) in response to environmental forces over millions of years. In the nineteenth century emerging agricultural sciences showed was that such change need not be left to slow and chaotic natural forces instead, the tools of science could be used to effect deliberately changes that suited various human needs. Darwin's cousin Sir Francis Galton took the next logical step and suggested that deliberate reproductive control could be applied to human beings as well. In 1883 he started using the term eugenics to describe those efforts.

Research Infrastructure

Much UK research is supported through a series of autonomous research councils, funded by government through the Office of Science and Technology Department of Trade and Industry. Those principally involved in food and nutrition research include the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) have a smaller impact on the food and agricultural sciences. The past decade has seen a major restructuring of the research infrastructure in the UK, changing the way in which food research is conducted and funded. The former Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) was merged with the biological sciences program of the former Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) in 1994 to establish the BBSRC. The BBSRC supports several institutes that contribute to food research, the most important of which is the Institute...

Quality Control And Grading

The Department of Agriculture is responsible for compiling specifications for the sorting and classification of most of the processed and unprocessed agricultural products. In the metropolitan areas, vegetables and fruit must comply with certain packaging, grading, and marketing conditions. Local and export regulations apply for canned vegetables and fruit, dehydrated vegetables, dried fruit, and frozen vegetables and fruit. Red meat carcasses are graded according to fatness, lean yield, and meat tenderness. Grading is compulsory for all carcasses auctioned in urban areas. The grading and classification of eggs in specific weight and quality groups apply to eggs for local consumption as well as for export. Poultry carcasses are graded in four classes according to their appearance, fleshing, market readiness, and moisture content in the case of frozen carcasses.

Plant disease suppression

The agricultural usage of biowaste-derived products has considerable potential, but public acceptability and quality assurance issues must be major concerns, probably more here than in any other comparable sector. In the UK alone, farmers have not been slow to learn the terrible consequences of consumer anxiety. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and the passions raised by genetically modified (GM) crops, or animals reared on them, entering the human food chain has focused attention ever more clearly on supply chain issues. The ramifications, in both economic and social terms, of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak, which paralysed the UK farming industry throughout 2001, has left the rural community all too well aware of the meaning of biosecurity. Since today's agri-business is so largely dominated by the demands of the supermarkets, it is neither unreasonable nor unlikely that guaranteed product quality would be a requirement in any industry-wide standard. A clear...

Conclunsion On Food Processing

The demand for agricultural products is expected to more than double worldwide over the next 40 years, through both population growth and dietary improvement in developing country populations. Many of these countries lack adequate land and agricultural resources to meet their expected food needs domestically without significant destruction of wildlife habitat, elevating the importance of international agricultural trade. Consumers throughout the world are also raising their food safety expectations, thus the need for viable international food safety standards.

Food Research And Development

Federal government food research is conducted by several departments. Agriculture and AgriFood Canada (AAFC) concentrates its research on agricultural products. Fisheries and Oceans Canada focuses on fish quality issues, and Health Canada is involved in the area of food safety and nutrition. fundamental, long-term, high-risk research activity, focusing on areas that the industry is unable to conduct on its own and to develop and maintain a communications coordination information infrastructure involving university, private sector, and provincial food research agencies. The Research Branch mission is to improve the on-going competitiveness of the Canadian agrifood sector through the development and transfer of innovative technologies. The food research program contributes toward this by focusing on increasing the market value (quality and value-added processing) and the utilization (new uses and value-added processing) of agricultural products. In the Research Branch of Agriculture...

Modified atmosphere packaging MAP

At the same time, an increasing share of the world's population is well fed, resulting in the decrease in world demand for agricultural products from current 2.2 annually to 1.5 for each of the next 30 years (FAO, 2002). Governments have to subsidize their agricultural industries to make them globally competitive. The rapid rate of scientific and technological progress which has driven the increase in food production occurred largely in the second half of the 20th century. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for example, has seen an unprecedented growth in research and development. From a modest beginning with Brown (1922) demonstrating the effect of different concentrations of CO2 and O2 at various temperatures on the growth of fungi, many have since built on his success to make MAP what it is today. Some of the more recent notable works include those of Seiler (1965), experimenting on the extension of shelf life of cake with MAP Ooraikul (1988), working extensively on MAP of various...

Popular and Professional Ideas about Risk

Medicine Clinical Epidemiology Cartoons

Some creative strategies have been developed that can be used to visualize lay epidemiology among rural and nonliterate populations. Robert Chambers' work with Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is one of the best-known examples of using graphic forms of information collection and display in participatory evaluation in developing countries (Chambers 1997). PRA practitioners work with rural villagers to produce maps of crop use and soil quality, bar charts of seasonal differences in production and household income, and cluster diagrams of wealth ranking or medicinal uses of local plants. They do this through innovative strategies that rely on public production of data and use of available and familiar materials. For example, a PRA team might ask villagers to draw a map of their village in the dirt of the central square. They would ask passersby to check and improve it and might also ask them to use sticks or rocks to indicate household locations, land that is fertile and infertile, or...

Poultry Meat Processing And Product Technology

Poultry meat is consumed all around the world. In the last few decades poultry meat has increased in popularity in many countries. Among the reasons for this increase are the relatively low growing costs, the rapid growth rate of poultry, the high nutritional value of the meat, and the introduction of many new further processed products. Overall, the poultry industry has drastically changed since the beginning of the century. In the early 1920s most poultry was produced in small flocks mainly to support small farm units, and the poultry was sold live in the local area markets. Most birds were used both as a source of meat and eggs. This is still the situation in some countries however, in most countries the poultry industry has grown and specializes in meat production breeds and egg production breeds. Over the years the number of small flocks has decreased dramatically as large operations specializing in raising poultry have emerged. Today it is not uncommon to find farmers...

Fungal Biotechology In Food Production

Advances in ingredient subdisciplines of mycology as in the past will remain the drivers of applied agricultural research. With new interests there will be major investment focused on generating discoveries and their applications towards both conventional and biotechnology oriented useful products and processes or services.

Development Of Functional Plant Ecology

The examination of plant functions in modern science has largely followed a reduction-istic path aimed at the explanation of plant functions in terms of the principles of physics and chemistry (Salisbury and Ross 1992). This reductionistic path is linked to the parallel transformation of traditional agricultural science into plant science and the technical developments needed to evolve from the examination of the coarser, integrative functions to those occurring at the molecular level. While this reductionistic path has led us toward a thorough catalog and understanding of plant functions, its limited usefulness to explain and predict the distribution of plants in nature has been a source of frustration. This is largely because of the multiple interactions that are expected to be involved in the responses of plants to a changing environment (Chapin et al. 1987). Yet, the need to achieve this predictive power has now transcended the academic arena to be a critical component of our...

Evolutionary Aspects of Diet Relative to n3 Fatty Acids and the n6n3 Balance

On the basis of estimates from studies in Paleolithic nutrition and modern-day hunter-gatherer populations, it appears that human beings evolved consuming a diet that was much lower in saturated fatty acids than today's diet. Furthermore, the diet contained small and roughly equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs (ratio of 1-2 1) and much lower amounts of trans-fatty acids than today's diet (Figure 3). The current Western diet is very high in n-6 fatty acids (the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ranges between 10 1 and 30 1) because of the recommendation to substitute vegetable oils high in n-6 fatty acids for saturated fats to lower serum cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, intake of n-3 fatty acids is much lower today because of the decrease in fish consumption and the industrial production of animal feeds rich in grains containing n-6 fatty acids, leading to production of meat rich in n-6 and poor in n-3 fatty acids. The same is true for cultured fish and eggs. Even cultivated...

Safety And Wholesomeness

An extremely important consideration in the trading of agricultural commodities between different regions involves protecting the importing region against the introduction of pests from the exporting region. Unwitting introduction of pests into a region where they are not yet present poses substantial risk of damage to the ecology and economy of the receiving region. For this reason such trade is contingent on the availability and use of effective quarantine treatment against pests of concern. In general, every importing jurisdiction has a system in place to enforce this requirement and prevent entry of products that have not been adequately treated. Historically, such treatment has involved the use of poison gas, such as methyl bromide, to fumigate the shipments of product. The need for treatment is pervasive, and essentially every traded product of agricultural origin is fumigated at least once, and in some cases several times, before reaching its final...

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Soon after the French conquered the region in the early 1890s, they forced Beng farmers to plant new crops (especially coffee, cocoa, and new varieties of rice and cotton) that were sold to the French in order to pay colonial taxes. The growth of a cash-based economy has resulted in more labor-intensive farming techniques based on monoculture in turn, this has reduced the time available for hunting. The rising prices of bullets and trapping line have also reduced the amount of available animal protein.

New applications determining the geographical origin of foods

Another very important factor which affects the extent of enrichment for plants growing in similar temperate climates is the surface area of leaves. This affects the rate of evapotranspiration such that the botanical origin of agricultural products can be differentiated from plants grown in similar geographical locations. The differences that exist in the hydrogen isotope composition of plant material have previously been exploited in IRMS studies to determine the botanical origin of sugars as mentioned above.

Conclusions and future trends

However, at the time of writing, crop losses continue to cause reductions of almost 20 in principal crops worldwide. The requirements of modern agriculture are far more restrictive than in the past, namely the inexorable demographic pressure and the need for more environmentally and toxicologically safe pesticides. Although new agrotechnology based on genetic engineering is one of the most dynamic branches of modern biotechnology, the interaction between plants and pathogens is of great complexity and, in many cases, is very specific to a given plant-pathogen combination. Thus, a comprehensive genetic analysis of host-pathogen interactions is in many cases still impractical, such that a more classical phytopathologic approach to the activation of plant defence responses will continue to be used.

Microorganisms as food

As we have seen in the previous section, a number of microorganisms are involved in the production of food products. Others, however, are foodstuffs Perhaps the most obvious of these are mushrooms, the stalked fruiting bodies of certain species of basidiomycete (see Chapter 8), notably Agaricus bisporus. These are grown in the dark at favourable temperatures, in order to stimulate the production of fruiting bodies. Another fungus, Fusarium forms the basis of QuornTM, a processed mycoprotein that has been used as a meat substitute for some years in the UK. Whereas mushrooms are grown as agricultural products, QuornTM must be produced under highly regulated sterile conditions. Other microbial food sources include certain algae (seaweed), which form an important part of the diet in some parts of the world, and bacteria and yeast grown in bulk as single-cell protein (SCP) for use as a protein-rich animal food supplement. The cyanobacterium Spirulina has been collected from dried-up ponds...

Internally Contaminated Patients

Radioactive material gains entry into the body by three principal routes inhalation, ingestion, or absorption from contaminated mucous membranes or abraded skin. Misadministration of a radiopharmaceutical is a potential source of internal contamination that can occur in the hospital setting. Internal contamination becomes a major concern of the population if large amounts of radioactive material are released into the atmosphere as a result of nuclear weapon detonation, large-scale nuclear power plant accident, or even a volcanic eruption. Such events may result in inhalation of airborne radioactive material or ingestion of radioactive material deposited onto agricultural land with subsequent transfer into the food chain.

Genetic Evaluation Systems

Fig. 2 Mean milk yield, genetic merit (breeding value), and sire genetic merit of U.S. Holstein cows with national genetic evaluations by birth year. (Source Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD http aipl.arsusda. gov accessed Sept 2003 .) Fig. 2 Mean milk yield, genetic merit (breeding value), and sire genetic merit of U.S. Holstein cows with national genetic evaluations by birth year. (Source Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD http aipl.arsusda. gov accessed Sept 2003 .)

Globalization of the food supply and the influence of economic factors on the contamination of food with pathogens

Evidence is lacking on whether the globalization of the food supply increases or decreases foodborne disease risks. As a first effort in understanding potential linkages, this chapter takes a broad view of the economic factors that influence human exposure to and infection with foodborne pathogens. As the foundation, this chapter looks at some of the demand-side and supply-side factors that have driven the substantial increase in international trade in agricultural products and commodities. This increase in trade and changes in the composition of trade have implications for human exposure to different pathogens.

The companys place in the food system

The two main food channels are the fresh product channel and the processed product channel. The fresh products channel has increased a great deal in importance in the last few years and it is predicted to grow further because of improved distribution technology and consumers' evident wish for fresh products. The processed products have been the mainstay of the food industry because of their enhanced storage life and the amount of variation that can be achieved in the products. The next decision is to decide on the stage of the food system production, ingredient processing, manufacturing, distribution or retail. There is increased innovation in the production sector with many new types and varieties of fruits and vegetables farming of an increasing variety of fish organic farming new types of animals. This is as well as genetic engineering, which up to now has concentrated on farming methods, such as resistance to herbicides and higher yields, rather than potential for product...

Needs For Further Research And Development

Little information is available for the degree of care required when handling fruits and vegetables. The often repeated instruction to handle agricultural products like eggs is sometimes irrelevant. According to Liu,180 due to the different characteristics of fruits and vegetables, care in handling may vary considerably. Handling products more gently than eggs may apply to strawberries and raspberries but not to commodities that possess tough rinds. Extra care and precautions taken in handling are expensive, which may not be necessary for some commodities. Information on the level of compression, abrasion, and impact forces a commodity can withstand and practices that can cause damage is needed. Such information could be used to design appropriate packaging materials, handling equipment, and systems without unnecessarily adding costs, and for instruction of workers in the field and packinghouse for proper care in harvesting and handling without unnecessarily adding costs.

Production Practices

The majority of emu operators also use artificial incubation (50-52 day period) for their eggs. Housing systems for emus in the United States are similar to but smaller in scale than those for ostriches. A good percentage of the birds have been raised on small farms or large lots. The emu chicks are fed an 18 to 22 protein diet for the first 3 months. From that time on, they are placed on a 13 protein ration. Emus are typically slaughtered at 12 to 15 months of age, at a weight of 33.2 kg.

Decision Support Systems

Mathematical models coupled with databases containing necessary, but often difficult-to-access, input information and with a straightforward user-interface can provide individual producers insight into their production system that was previously unavailable. These applications of mathematical models allow individuals to pose and answer what-if questions in a matter of minutes rather than over the course of years, as would be required to address the same questions using the actual production system. Additionally, more questions can be addressed in the computer than would be feasible to pose otherwise. Using decision support systems could help producers avoid costly mistakes or missed opportunities that otherwise might not be recognized. The Decision Evaluator for the Cattle Industry (DECI) developed by the Agricultural Research Service in conjunction with the National Cattlemen's Beef Association 18 and GRAZ-plan 19 are examples of this use of mathematical models of cattle and sheep...

Good agricultural practice

Though GMP has been developed for the food manufacturing industry, the principles on which it is based are readily transferable to the growing of fruit and vegetables. In this instance the appropriate term is good agricultural practice or GAP. Growers undertake many activities that have the potential to generate hazards that may be associated with produce given the right circumstances, but which might not be included as requirements for control within the scope of HACCP systems. General site organization and cleanliness will lead to the minimization of sources of contamination that might compromise food safety. The handling, storage and methods of use of agrochemicals ought to be carried out in defined ways that are unlikely to lead to the creation of food safety hazards. Equipment used to apply agrochemicals, for example crop sprayers, should be calibrated to ensure correct levels of chemical application and should be cleaned between uses to prevent the possibility of...

The Nature Of Ethical Inquiry

Much of what is contested about food biotechnology can only be settled by science, if it can be settled at all. Whether genetically engineered plants pose any unique risks to the environment is a partly scientific, partly philosophical question. It is philosophical in so far as one might bring disparate concepts and values to bear upon one's interpretation of a risk to the environment. Is every human impact upon ecological processes automatically detrimental Are there processes of molecular or organismal evolution that must be protected, or should we think of risk to the environment more in terms of impact on the habitat of wild species If it is the latter, then some aspects of risk to the environment are the intentional consequences of agricultural science, as when a new variety of soybean or a new vaccine permits new lands to be brought into production. Yet within differing philosophical conceptions of risk to the environment, there are a host of questions When the first edition of...

Food Research Before The Term Food Science Arose

Food science as a distinct discipline is not quite a century old, but aspects of it have existed for centuries. Appert's development in 1810 of the process of canning (1) was an epochal event. The process wasn't called canning then, and Appert himself did not really know the principle upon which his process depended, but canning has had a major impact on food preservation ever since its development. It was the first of the purposely invented processes. Other methods developed earlier, such as drying and fermentation, go back to antiquity and were a result of the evolution of procedures over centuries rather than the purposeful application of the scientific method. Pasteur's study on the spoilage of wine and his description in 1864 (2,3) of how to avoid such spoilage persists not only because of the scientific importance of his findings but also because the term, pasteurization, is so much a part of our vocabulary. There were other early studies on food spoilage. In 1897 Prescott and...

Creation and movement of knowledge in the food system

The passing of knowledge between suppliers and food manufacturers emphasises that one cannot think of a part of the food industry by itself. In knowledge creation, each part of the food system is affecting knowledge in another part. In primary production, knowledge creation has been very much government-financed and often government-led. In early years, farming and fishing were essential for the production of food for the population, and were often the occupations of many individuals and families. Governments therefore felt that R&D in food production was their social responsibility. Today scientists in private and publicly managed agencies do significant basic and applied research. Governments are still funding agricultural research from government revenues and often organise agricultural research. For example in the United States, the US Department of Agriculture is still a major player in agricultural research and State governments are also involved. Internationally, there are also...

Education And Research

Food sciences education is shared among four universities. The Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Helsinki is concentrated on food technology, food chemistry, microbiology, and nutrition the Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, the University of Helsinki, focuses on food hygiene. Other branches are food chemistry in the University of Turku, nutrition in the University of Kuopio, and food technology and chemistry in the Helsinki University of Technology. Research on food science and technology is carried out in the preceding universities as well as in four governmental research institutes and two private institutes. The governmental institutes include the Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (MTT), National Public Health Institute (KTL), National Veterinary and Food Research Institute (EELA), and VTT Biotechnology and Food Research. The private institutes are the Meat Research Institute and Potato Research...

Packaging Part Iilabeling

Other agencies may also have requirements that affect food labeling. For example, the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms of the Treasury Department regulates labeling of alcoholic beverages. The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) within USDA administers grading of agricultural products.

Biological Basis Of Sperm Sexing

Separation of sperm according to the sex chromosome is based on the DNA content of the sperm. Mammalian semen can be sexed because the X-chromosome-bearing sperm that produce females contain about 4 more DNA than do the Y-chromosome-bearing sperm that produce males. The procedure is 85-95 accurate for the selected sex. 1-3 Sorting of live mammalian sperm according to their DNA content first was developed the USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. 4 This flow cytometric sorting procedure for sperm 5-8 is patented and exclusively licensed worldwide for non-human mammals to XY, Inc., a private company. For the sorting procedure, freshly collected sperm are stained with a DNA-specific bisbenzimidazole dye, Hoechst 33342, for approximately 1 hr prior to sorting. 9 Hoechst 33342-stained sperm fluoresce bright blue when exposed to a laser beam of short wavelength light and the X-bearing sperm are differentiated from the Y-bearing sperm because they fluoresce brighter due to their...

Effects Of Grassland Management And Climate Change

Fungi are seldom considered in issues of land use but there is a growing body of evidence that sites with diverse fungal communities do not necessarily host diverse plant communities. This is consistent with the idea that soil nutrient conditions are far more important than sward management. While many sites with diverse grassland fungal communities receive some legal protection (SSSI, etc.), fungal diversity is seldom mentioned in the notification statements (Chapter 8). Since site visits by nature conservation staff generally occur in the summer, there is little information about macrofungal diversity. Recent UK legislation (EIA (Agriculture) Regulations, 2001) controls change of use of agricultural land (e.g. ploughing of pasture), but since biodiversity assessments are generally conducted in the summer, low plant diversity can lead to destruction of valuable fungal sites.

Case Study 91 Engineered Salt Tolerance Rehovot Israel

According to some authorities, over half the world's agricultural land is expected to become increasingly saline within the next 50 years. In some countries, such as Israel where this work was pioneered, fresh water supplies are already stretched to the point that farmers are forced to use a proportion of salty water for irrigation and it is anticipated that this usage will continue to grow in the future. If encroaching desertification is to be avoided under these circumstances, then the development of salt-resistant crops and trees becomes essential.

Formation Of The Institute

The formation of the Institute in 1939 was the result of the efforts of several food technologists and engineers who felt that there should be a discipline for a subject as important as the production, nutrition, and safety of foods. In 1937 a food technology conference was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The conference was chaired by Dr. Samuel C. Prescott, Dean of Biology at MIT. At the conclusion of the conference, Dr. Bernard E. Proctor, also of the MIT faculty, expressed the hope that similar gatherings would be held to function as clearinghouses of information for the scientific and industrial communities. Concurrently at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York, George J. Hucker was fostering the idea of an organization of food-related societies.

Other techniques to identify common wheat

The main authenticity problem with rice is the potential substitution of a premium rice variety, notably Basmati, with a cheaper variety. A simple scheme of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute for identifying Basmati rice stipulates fine grain, mild to strong aroma (as measured by potassium hydroxide treatment), linear kernel elongation on cooking and non-slimy and non-splitting nature (Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 1980 Siddiq, 1982 Vaingankar and Kulkarni, 1988, 1989).

Farmland Preservation

Special treatment of agricultural land is usually sought through traditional land use controls such as zoning and subdivision, with special modifications. For example, exclusive agricultural zoning, which does not allow any other uses, may be effective. However, while the goal preserving farmland is clear, problems may arise if farmers find the zoning too inflexible and economically unacceptable. Should farmers bare this cost so that the public may benefit from more farmland and open space

Food Processing By High Pressure Treatment

Processing of agricultural products Development of jams, fruit sauce and fruit dessert, processing of plum products, orange juice, rice wine (sake), rice cake (moti), and rice crackers, enzyme inactivation of oranges, food processing by ice nucleation-bacteria, properties of pickles, control of bitter taste in grapefruit juice.

How Does Mercury Contaminate Food

The primary portal of mercury contamination of food is via its industrial release into water, either fresh or salt water, and its conversion to methyl mercury by methanogenic bacteria. As the marine life takes up the methyl mercury, it works its way into the food chain and is ultimately consumed by humans. This is the scenario that occurred following the release of inorganic mercury from an acet-aldehyde plant into Minimata Bay in Japan in 1956 and 1965 and is responsible for the so-called 'Minimata disease.' Furthermore, acid rain has increased the amount of mercury available to be taken up by the tissues of edible sea life and can enhance the toxicity of certain fish. An unfortunate consequence of seafood contamination with methyl mercury is the contamination of fish meal used to feed poultry, resulting in mercury accumulation in the poultry as well as in the eggs. Additionally, mercury-containing pesticides can contaminate agricultural products. In Iraq in 1971 and 1972, wheat used...

Challenges For Food Security In This Century And Beyond

In the last century, the Green Revolution addressed the food needs of the human population through the development of high yielding and early maturing varieties that performed under favorable conditions of nutrition and moisture (Khush 2001). Prior to this time, increased production was dependent on expansion of land area for crop production. In recent years, yield gain through breeding has not kept pace with population growth (Serageldin 1999). Furthermore, genotype is not the only factor limiting productivity. Abiotic and biotic stress factors also contribute to losses in yield both pre and postharvest. For example, in Asia these technical constraints on rice production may reduce production by 23 (Evanson et al. 1996). Socioeconomic constraints also contribute to practices that affect yield. Ninety percent of the world's rice is grown in Asia on small farms with limited resources. Thus, decisions are made based on economics rather than achieving technically optimum yields. Despite...

Environmental Impacts

As the structure of agriculture changes, animal production facilities are increasing in scale. Larger numbers of confined animals are raised on fewer farms. More are clustering around feed mills and processing plants. These trends have led to growing public concern about the impact of agricultural land use on ground and surface water quality. 4 Support for a statewide policy approach to address agricultural water pollution may be based on perceptions that consistent requirements across political boundaries are necessary to create a level playing field for agricultural producers. Perceptions that local government officials have limited knowledge of animal agriculture production practices may also build support for statewide requirements. Support for local control of agricultural land use may be based on perceptions that federal and state government efforts fall short of environmental performance goals for several reasons, including declining budgets unfunded mandates and a lack of...

Perspectives from Anthropology

Another settlement suffered further demise as a new river (a result of the shifting land from the earthquake) further destroyed roads and agricultural land. The fourth settlement had mixed starts and stops depending upon the whims of unreliable leadership. Glittenberg concludes in this comparative study that a higher level of living, harmony, and balance were due to social forces including democratic leadership, access to economic opportunity, and outside aid assistance (Glittenberg, 1989).

Food Production And Land

Working Team Organization

Table 1 Human population, total land area, and agricultural land area in selected countries for 2001 Table 2 Population (x 1000) of primary food animals, animal units (AU x 1000), and hectares of agricultural land area (ALA) per AU in selected countries for 2002 Table 2 Population (x 1000) of primary food animals, animal units (AU x 1000), and hectares of agricultural land area (ALA) per AU in selected countries for 2002 land devoted to agricultural production than Japan. Increased environmental regulations in both countries and animal welfare guidelines in the United Kingdom are having major impacts on food animal production. These changes are driven somewhat by cultural views and the limited land base to support the presence of food animals, with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom having less than one hectare of agricultural land per animal unit (Table 2). Sufficient land base is needed for food animal production, not only directly for the animals but also for growing the crops...

Current applications adulteration of fruit juice honey and wine

Photosynthetic C02 assimilation via the C3, C4 and CAM pathways is of primary importance in the use of carbon stable isotope ratio analysis in food authenticity control. The detection of commercial C4 cane and corn derived sugar syrups in C3 agricultural products (e.g., fruit juice, honey, maple syrup) are thus facilitated by characteristic differences in

Unknown Effects on Human Health

Bringing a GM food to market is a lengthy and costly process, and agribiotech companies want to ensure a profitable return on their investment. Many new plant genetic engineering technologies and GM plants have been patented, and patent infringement is a big concern for agribusiness. Yet consumer advocates are worried that patenting these new plant varieties will raise the price of seeds to such an extent that small farmers and Third World countries will not be able to afford seeds for GM crops, thus widening the gap between the wealthy and the poor. Perhaps there needs to be a humanitarian gesture by more companies to offer their products at reduced cost to impoverished nations. The USDA has many internal divisions that share responsibility for assessing GM foods. Among these divisions is the Animal Health and Plant Inspection Service (APHIS), which conducts field tests and issues permits to grow GM crops the Agricultural Research Service, which performs in-house GM food research and...

Mating Systems To Exploit Heterosis

Variations on classic crossbreeding systems can be found that fit better with the prevailing farming system. An example proposed by Andrew MacTaggart (personal communication) is shown in Fig. 3. At equilibrium, the cows in the commercial herd contain predominantly Brahman genes, even for a moderate level of within-herd female replacement. This is largely because the sires of imported heifers are pure Brahman, and their dams are part Brahman. High Brahman content makes for good mothering ability in the tough tropical environment that prevails. In contrast, the growing stock in the commercial herd typically contains mostly British genes, at a level that depends on migration rates, improving growth and product quality in slaughter stock. This system overcomes the fluctuations in breed content that affect classic rotational mating systems 1 and better exploits the specific merits of different breed types.

Agriculture And Food Science And Technology Research

Several universities, government institutions, semistate organizations, and private sector companies are involved in research and technology development in the agriculture and food and beverage industries. In agricultural research the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) of South Africa, a parastate organization, contributes about 65 of the agricultural research capacity, the remainder being from university departments and government stations in the provinces. The ARC, with 13 institutes appropriately situated across the country, caters to the needs of all agricultural commodity research, including in some instances food product and processing technology develop

Community Impacts And Responses

Whether the new federal rules fully address water quality and related environmental concerns of citizens and communities is yet to be known, but citizen perceptions of risk associated with odor, environmental quality, and quality of life will likely persist until the rules are perceived as effective. An additional tool available to communities to help minimize conflicts related to environmental concerns is the use of zoning in agricultural areas. Through local zoning, a community might establish rules identifying where a livestock production facility could be located or establish buffers of sufficient distance from residential areas to mitigate odor and water quality concerns. 4 Unfortunately, zoning of agricultural areas is not an option for local governments in many states because such zoning is not legally permitted in the counties, municipalities, or townships of the state. The existence of agriculture-specific zoning would enable a community to separate livestock agriculture from...

Quantification of Effects from Species Interactions

Misunderstandings frequently arise from the fact that relative superiority of productivity is frequently confused with absolute superiority.We adapt the term overyielding from agricultural science and population biology, and define relative and absolute superiority of mixed stands over the monoculture non-transgressive and transgressive overyielding, respectively (Hector et al. 2002).

Cultural Overview

Until recently the Maasai lived a seminomadic way of life, migrating with their livestock herds according to seasonal fluctuations. Today they are less nomadic, but livestock, in particular cattle, are still central to their economy and culture. In Kenya the traditional grazing land of the Maasai has been divided into group and individual ranches, and many group ranches have been subdivided into individual holdings (Talle, 1988). In Tanzania, however, the privatization of pasture land is less advanced than in Kenya. The land adjudication process has contributed to make the pastoral Maasai increasingly sedentary in both countries. Agriculture is of little importance except in the wetter parts of their area, but maize, and to a lesser extent other agricultural products, constitutes a major part of their diet. Earlier, Maasai bartered pastoral products such as livestock, milk, meat, and skins for grain and honey (for ceremonial beer brewing) with their agricultural neighbors. Presently...

Law Federal Governing Animal Research

The Health Research Extension Act turned NIH guidelines for proper care and use of animals into law. (NIH had long promoted reasonable guidelines for animal care but had had no mechanism for enforcing them.) Violations could result in seizure of all federal money to an institution. Between the two laws, virtually all vertebrate animals used in research in the United States, with the exception of farm animals used in agricultural research and rats and mice* used in private-industry research, are now legally covered. Many IACUCs apply the same standards to agricultural researchers vis-a-vis pain and suffering as they do to animals used in biomedical research.

Governmental Activities

Toward raw products, and livestock or poultry production, but at many of these laboratories, major effort today goes into food processing or utilization. There is also the joint state-federal program of the Agricultural Research Service and the Land-Grant Experiment Stations.


Kalidas Shetty, Ph.D. is a professor of food biotechnology in the Department of Food Science at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. He earned his B.S. from the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, majoring in applied microbiology, and his M.S. Ph.D. from the University of Idaho, Moscow, in microbiology. He then pursued postdoctoral studies in plant biotechnology at the National Institute of AgroBiological Sciences, Tsukuba Science City, Japan and at the University of Guelph, Canada, prior to joining the University of Massachusetts in 1993.

List of Contributors

Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agriculture Winter Haven, Florida Southern Regional Research Center Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agriculture New Orleans, Louisiana Southern Regional Research Center Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agriculture New Orleans, Louisiana Division of Agricultural Sciences Florida A&M University Tallahassee, Florida Southern Regional Research Center Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture New Orleans, Louisiana


Transport of cattle to slaughter is a common practice in modern agriculture. Cattle are predominantly shipped via road transport, although rail transport is used when distances exceed 800 km. 3 Transportation is generally considered stressful to animals, as indicated by studies employing physiological and behavioral techniques. Reducing transport stress is of great interest to producers, government, and consumers, because transport can result in reduced meat quality, bruised carcasses which must be trimmed, and potential suffering that compromises well-being. Stressors from transport include irregular social

Inserm Cnrs

Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Western Human Nutrition Research Center and Department of Agricultural Sciences La Trobe University Victoria, Australia Agricultural Research Service Grand Forks, North Dakota Department of Animal Sciences Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center


Again the question arises of whether the consequences of such gene transfers are qualitatively different from the same process occurring on crop plants modified through traditional breeding. Opponents of GM crops say yes, since the potential exists to transfer genes from sources that would otherwise never be found in the agricultural environment. For instance, jellyfish genes are used in some agricultural research. In addition, the potential for harm from escaped genes may be greater precisely because the gene is so useful agriculturally. The gene for a natural insecticide may help grow safer corn, for example, but it could also allow a wild plant to escape its natural controls and become a serious forest weed. While such scenarios are hypothetical for the moment, opponents say that so little is known about the intricacies of ecology that caution is the only safe policy.

Harms of Confinement

Confinement agriculture also exacts other social costs. In an industry requiring large amounts of capital, small operators cannot compete effectively, and large, well-capitalized corporations inevitably drive out small family farmers. Young people cannot afford to enter agriculture. Efficiency and productivity eclipse other values traditionally maintained in small farm communities, such as independence, self-sufficiency, and husbandry. Environmental problems such as waste disposal and water and energy consumption also arise from intensive agriculture. Lack of pasturing of animals contributes to soil erosion when land no longer used for pasture is tilled for grain. Drug residues in animal products may pose human health problems, and widespread use of antibiotics essentially breeds for resistant pathogens by eliminating microbes susceptible to the drugs. Salmonella and Campylobacter bacterial contamination are significant problems in chickens, turkeys, and eggs, since they can cause...

Getting Food

Working in food banks and soup kitchens in Delaware, Curtis (1996) noted that some food policies and programs directed at the poor originated not because of the nutritional needs of the poor, but out of a quest to find nonmarket outlets for surplus agricultural products, in order to sustain farm prices and incomes. Therefore, if one wants to understand how the homeless meet their needs for sustenance by studying the feeding programs of shelters, soup kitchens, and food banks, it is useful to look not only at what is happening in the dining room from the recipients' point of view but also, as Curtis pointed out, at the total context of the feeding program and how it is delivered.


Laboratory Technician (p. 2), Mark Tade Getty Images Maize (p. 9), Courtesy of Agricultural Research Service USDA Marker Systems (p. 16), Custom Medical Stock Photo Mass Spectrometry (p. 19), Ian Hodgson Rueters New Media McClintock, Barbara (p. 21), AP Wide World Photos McKusick, Victor (p. 23), The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Mendel, Gregor (p. 30), Archive Photos, Inc. Metabolic Disease (p. 38), AP Wide World Photos Mitochondrial Diseases (p. 53), Courtesy of Dr. Richard Haas University of California, San Diego, Department of Neurosciences Mitosis (p. 58), J. L. Carson Custom Medical Stock Photo Model Organisms (p. 61), Frank Lane Picture Agency Corbis Molecular Anthropology (p. 66), John Reader, Science Photo Library PhotoResearchers, Inc. Molecular Biologist (p. 71), AP Wide World Photos Morgan, Thomas Hunt (p. 73), Bettmann Corbis Mosaicism (p. 78), Courtesy of Carolyn Brown Department of Medical Genetics of University of British...

Mycoprotein as Food

Data from US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 14 July 2001. Nutrient Data Laboratory (http fnic foodcomp) and P. Collins, Marlow Foods, UK. Data from US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 14 July 2001. Nutrient Data Laboratory (http fnic foodcomp) and P. Collins, Marlow Foods, UK.

Water Buffalo

The water buffalo is considered to be a very useful animal in many countries, supplying draft power, meat, milk, and other by-products such as hides, horn, etc. The water buffalo is closely associated with water or mud, and with smallholder farmers in the rice fields. In recent years, buffalo production has developed well, not only in Asia, but also in Europe, South America, and other continents where the buffalo has been introduced. This article aims to introduce some basic knowledge of the water buffalo, with an emphasis on its great contribution to our living standards and improved productivity that could be better exploited for a more sustainable agriculture development in the 21st century. In general, the River types are mainly used for milk in South Asian countries, while the Swamp types are used for draft power in Southeast Asian countries and China (Table 1). However, both the River and Swamp types have been used for multiple purposes such as work, milk, meat, manure, fuel,...

Standards And Safety

The standards for crude and refined, bleached, deodorized canola oil, as outlined in Table 6, were established in 1987 by the Canadian General Standard Board (CGSB). Such standards are used in purchasing, consumer protection, health and safety, international trade, and regulatory reference (90). In addition, there is also the Canada Agricultural Products Standard Act, which defines the quality of products, including canola oil (Table 4), for regulating the grading, packing, and marketing of processed canola oil in Canada. These come under the jurisdiction of Agriculture Canada (90).

Uses Of The Data

State, and local applications, including policy formation, program planning, and nutrition education. Users of the survey data include federal government agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Federal Trade Commission, and numerous USDA agencies state agencies and larger county health departments food and agricultural industries and universities. The data are used to determine the food choices Americans make and to evaluate the content and adequacy of their diets in relationship to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (1) other federal government statements of dietary policy, such as the year 2000 nutrition objectives (2) and the National Academy of Sciences' Recommended Dietary Allowances (3). Health interventions such as the National Cancer Institute's 5-A-Day for Better Health Program (4) and nutrition education materials such as the Food Guide Pyramid (5) are developed and targeted based on survey results. The data...


Funding from The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS) as well as The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are also due to Dr. Katarina Ihrmark and Professors Roger Finlay, Jan Stenlid, Peter Hogberg, Torgny Nasholm, Tryggve Persson and Bjorn Berg, for research collaboration and Dr. Andy Taylor, Dr. Petra Fransson and Professor Lynne Boddy and Dr. Juliet Frankland, for critical reading of the manuscript.


Other pathogens are only locally spread. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, for example, will affect farms within a 3-km zone. However, for farms located in an area of low farm density, maintenance of a M. hyopneumoniae-free status has been possible for more than 20 years. 2 Some diseases, such as Sarcopties scabiei var suis, require direct pig contact. With modern avermectin therapies, eradication of mange on pig farms is achievable. Adequate biosecurity is the responsibility of the entire pork production chain, from the nucleus and multiplication farms, with their artificial insemination (AI) studs, to the family farm. A pathogen that is absent from the farm or area, such as pseudorabies (Aujeszky's diseases), does not require treatment or prevention. Indeed, the absence of pathogens allows for more errors in environmental management before production suffers.


Because economic values change over time, average values calculated over a long period of time are most useful (unless there is a clear indication or guarantee of future value). Shelton 5 reported ''consensus values'' for heritability of the various traits. Highly heritable ( 0.25) values include lock length clean yield mature weight face, neck, and belly covering secondary primary follicle ratio and scrotal division. Moderately heritable (0.15 0.25) values include fleece weight, fleece density, average fiber diameter, kemp (medullation) content, and weaning weight, and lowly heritable values include reproductive rate, longevity, and adaptability. Because Angora goat breeders are interested in many animal and fleece traits, developing a comprehensive selection index for Angora goats is a difficult task. To further complicate the issue, few of the traits are completely independent, and all are affected to some degree by such factors as age, nutrition, year, sex, and type of birth. The...

Historic Perspective

In 1700 Ireland was similar to other western European countries her population was about 4 million and most of them worked on the land. From the middle of the eighteenth century, the demand for agricultural products grew sharply. In a century, beef exports had quadrupled, pork increased eightfold, and the carefully supervised butter trade doubled. This supply of low-cost foods was critical in releasing British agricultural labor for factory work, thus contributing to the British industrial revolution. Ireland's population, supported by increased potato cultivation, reached 8 million by 1800, when the Act of Union joined Ireland's Parliament to that of the UK (2).

Fruit Extracts

In past years, a considerable interest has been shown in using agricultural products such as dates, carob pods, and figs for the production of citric acid by A. niger (27,86,105107,206,207). Date syrup is produced from dates by boiling the dates in water, filtering the solution, and concentrating the filtrate under vacuum. The extract of the date syrup

Semiochemical agents

However, as illustrated by the case of another pentatomid, Nezara viridula, the southern green stink bug, the use of this approach to biological control is not universally applicable. These insects are major agricultural pests affecting a variety of field crops, vegetables, fruits and nuts. While it has been known for sometime that sexually mature males produce an attractant pheromone, the active ingredients of which have been identified, early attempts to use this knowledge to exclude them from crops have been of only limited effectiveness. As a result, an alternative method of Nezara control has been suggested involving the genetic engineering of its gut symbionts to produce a reduced tolerance of environmental stress. Preliminary work at the Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA has isolated and cultured in vitro a gram-negative bacterium from the mid-gut of the pest insect, which appears to be a specific symbiont and has been putatively identified as a species of...

Nuisance Impacts

Every state has passed some form of right-to-farm law. These laws encourage working agricultural lands, and typically aim to protect farmers from nuisance lawsuits filed by neighboring land owners. 5 A nuisance is an activity that unreasonably interferes with or disturbs a person's use and enjoyment of their own property.1-6-1 Some right-to-farm laws restrict local governments from regulating generally accepted normal farming practices, which can be difficult to define. For example, is it normal to load animals onto trucks at midnight This practice may cause harm to neighbors due to the truck and animal noises and spotlights. To address growing public concern regarding the changing structure of agriculture and the impacts of odor, noise, light, and other nuisances on neighboring land owners, local governments are increasingly exercising their police powers. Zoning may separate agricultural from residential land uses. Additionally, some municipalities require specific minimum distances...

Toward Reform

While it is unlikely that industrialized agriculture will ever revert to being fully or even largely extensive, it is possible to make intensive agriculture much more animal-welfare friendly, and perhaps to change certain systems from full to partial confinement. For example, it is possible to raise swine profitably without keeping sows confined in small gestation crates for their entire lives. In addition, concern about sustainable agriculture may well result in a concerted social effort to return to less industrialized systems guided by husbandry. On the other hand, confinement agricultural systems are being introduced into Third World countries as a shortcut to rapid economic growth and as a way of adding animal products to the diets of these countries. This has generated a variety of ethical concerns, including fear of environmental despoliation, concern that successful indigenous agriculture will be lost, worries about importing Western health problems to these countries, and...

Regulatory agencies

In addition to regulatory branches, the USDA has a large research program dealing with many aspects of agriculture, including food safety and nutrition. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) conducts research in support of the department's regulatory activities and several of its centers, throughout the U.S., are devoted to human nutrition research.

Septic tank

In many respects, the commonest rural solution to sewage treatment beyond the reach of sewerage, namely the septic tank, makes use of an intermediate form of land treatment. In the so-called cesspit, a sealed underground tank, collects and stores all the sewage arising from the household. At regular intervals, often around once a month dependent on the capacity, it requires emptying and tankering away, typically for spreading onto, or injection into, agricultural land. By contrast, a septic tank is a less passive system, settling and partially digesting the input sewage, although even with a properly sized and well-managed regime the effluent produced still contains about 70 of the original nutrient input. In most designs, this is mitigated by the slow discharge of the liquid via an offtake pipe into a ground soakaway, introducing the residual contaminants into the soil, where natural treatment processes can continue the amelioration of the polluting constituents. There are various...


Nucleic acid-based technology is considered to be of critical importance to public health worldwide and is transforming clinical microbiology, pathology, genetics, pharmacogenetics, prenatal, and preimplantation medi-cine. 21 Nucleic acid-based technology will also have a significant impact on forensic diagnostics, veterinary medicine, food hygiene and technology, and monitoring of genetically modified agricultural products.

Enzyme Inhibition

One aspect of the importance of enzymes in biology can be appreciated by considering the attention that continues to be focused on the inhibition of enzymatic activity. Historically, inhibitors played important roles in the elucidation of metabolic pathways. An example was the use of malonate as a metabolic inhibitor, leading to the accumulation of succinate in metabolizing cell extracts. Malonate proved to be an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, and its effect on metabolism revealed the importance of succinate as a metabolic intermediate and of succinate dehydrogenase in metabolism. In this way, malonate as an inhibitor played an important role in the elucidation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Countless competitive inhibitors have been applied in various ways to the characterization of active sites. Clues to the binding properties and specificities of active sites can be deduced by systematically varying the structures of competitive inhibitors and comparing the inhibition...

Lucky Monocultures

Another example of an increasing incidence of a root and butt rot following harvesting is provided by Pinus radiata plantations established on former agricultural land in New Zealand, where losses due to Armillaria became progressively more troublesome after the first rotation (Chou 1991 Burdon 2002). Disease has been increasing also on sites cleared of the native, diverse forest (van der Pas 1981). It might be hoped that shortened rotations will limit the opportunity for this fungus to develop within trees. This does not, however, seem to be the way to avoid damage in the long term, perhaps because each rotation provides new food bases for the fungus. Indeed, when rotation periods of Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata plantations in the Great

Nutrients in Foods

The data on pages 434 to 483 are from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1999. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 13. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http fnic foodcomp. In some instances, manufacturers' data also were used. This does not indicate an endorsement of the product. 0 value negligible level. (-) value not available. Values were rounded to nearest decimal point.

Control Strategies

Because human infections derive mainly from the ingestion of infected pork, an immunodiagnostic test suitable for the abattoir has had high priority for both the Agricultural Research Service and the Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. The efforts of these agencies have been successful, and a commercial ELISA-type test is now available. The critical step in producing this test was the discovery of a simple parasite-cultivation procedure for obtaining the diagnostic antigen (16). The antigens have been purified using a monoclonal antibody in combination with immunoaffinity techniques. In field tests, the antigens proved to be highly specific and sensitive (17,18). Currently, research is underway to produce the antigens by recombinant methods, and preliminary results indicate these efforts will also be successful. This will enhance the commercial viability of the test.

The End Of Husbandry

Symbolically, this contract was broken in the mid-20th century when academic departments of animal husbandry changed their names to departments of animal science. As the textbooks put it, animal science became ''the application of industrial methods to the production of animals.'' This change occurred in America for a variety of reasons. 1 With projections of burgeoning population and shrinking amounts of agricultural land, agricultural scientists feared shortages in the food supply. The Depression and Dust Bowl had driven many people out of agriculture, as had World War II, which exposed young men to faster, more exciting lives than rural America afforded. As the lyrics of a song popular during World

Other Factors

VanRaden, P M Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 2003 ) (Source'. VanRaden, P M Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 2003 )


Factors Affecting Agriculture Positive

The relationship between tree diversity and productivity that can be observed at the landscape scale across forests and within forest types can be confounded by environmental factors, seral stage, and management practices, directly and indirectly (Fig. 4.7). The analysis of the IEFC shows that the positive relationship between species tree richness and stemwood production occurs in sclerophilous and conifer forests before canopy closure. These results suggest that the relationship is only found in early successional forests or in stressed forests (e.g., water or soil-nutrient-limited, rocky soils) in which the effect of having more tree species in a stand is additive to that of the dominant species. Since most of the Catalan forests are functionally young resulting from a decrease of high-intensity management in the last decades (e.g., end of charcoal production and agricultural land abandonment) or because they are at an early regeneration stage after disturbances (e.g., fire), we...

Endangered Species

Many endangered species have no resource value, nor are they particularly important for the usual humanistic reasons medicine, industry, agricultural resources, scientific study, recreation, ecosystem stability, and so on. Many environmental ethicists (see ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS) believe that species are good in their own right, whether or not they are good for anything. The duties-to-persons-only line of argument leaves deeper reasons untouched.

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