Conclusion Of Ovarain Cancer

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor

Breast Cancer Survivors

Get Instant Access

The rapidly evolving practice of clinical genetics is throwing up many questions to which we do not yet have clear answers. This is nowhere more apparent than in the genetics of common cancers, including breast cancer, which is the fastest growing area of genetic medicine. If this chapter has dwelt on problems rather than solutions, this is a reflection of the current 'state of the art' rather than of any underlying pessimism. We live in exciting and, above all, hopeful times. Given the pace of progress over the past decade, those involved in developing clinical and laboratory services for cancer families, in partnership with the families themselves, look forward with great confidence to a transformation scene within the next 20 years.


Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing (1997). Code of Practice and Guidance on Human Genetic Testing Services Supplied Direct to the Public. London: Dept of Health.

Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing (1998). Report on Genetic Testing for Late Onset Disorders. London: Dept of Health.

Al-Shahi R and Warlow C (2000). Using patient-identifiable data for observational research and audit. Br Med J 321: 1031-2.

American Society of Human Genetics (1998). ASHG statement: professional disclosure of familial genetic information. Am J Hum Genet 62: 474-83.

Anonymous (2000). Private matters, public affairs. Nat Genet 26: 1-2.

Association of British Insurers (1997). Genetic Testing ABI Code of Practice. London: ABI.

Baildam AD (1999). The role of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPMX) in women at high risk of breast cancer. Dis Markers 15: 197-8.

Balter M (2000). European science policy - France rebels against gene patenting law. Science 288: 2115.

Barber JCK (1998). Code of practice and guidance on human genetic testing services supplied direct to the public. Advisory committee on genetic testing. J Med Genet 35: 443-5.

Barlow-Stewart KK, French JA, O'Donnell SM and Spigelman AD (2001). Genetic Discrimination Experienced by Australian Families Affected by Hereditary Bowel Cancer. Proceedings of the 3rd Joint Meeting, Leeds Castle polyposis group and international collaborative group for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, Venice, Italy.

Bebbington HM and Fallowfield LJ (1999). Psychosocial implications of prophylactic bilateral mastectomy (abstr.). Dis Markers 15: 154.

Beckman MW (1999). Clinical services for familial breast and ovarian cancer in Germany (abstr.). Dis Markers 15: 48.

Bewtra C, Watson P, Conway T, et al. (1992). Hereditary ovarian cancer: a clinicopathological study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 11: 180-7.

Brett P and Fischer EP (1993). Effects on life insurance of genetic testing. The Actuary 10(3): 11-12.

Burke W, Press N and Pinsky L (1999). BRCA1 and BRCA2: a small part of the puzzle. J Natl Cancer Inst 91: 904-5.

Cabinet Office (1999). The Advisory and Regulatory Framework for Biotechnology. Report from the Government's review. London: Office of Science and Technology.

Chapman CJ (1999). Risk estimation and pedigree analysis (abstr.). Dis Markers 15: 119.

Claus E, Risch N and Thompson D (1991). Genetic analysis of breast cancer in the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study. Am J Hum Genet 48: 232-42.

Cull A, Miller H, PorterfieldT, etal. (1998). The use of videotaped information in cancer genetic counselling: a randomised evaluation study. Br J Cancer 77: 830-7.

Cull A, Anderson EDC, Campbells, etal. (1999). The impact of genetic counselling about breast cancer risk on women's risk perceptions and levels of distress. Br J Cancer 79: 501-8.

Cull A, Fry A, Rush R and Steel CM (2001). Cancer perceptions and distress among women attending a familial ovarian cancer clinic. Br J Cancer 84(5): 594-9.

De Vos M, Poppe B, Delvaux G, et al. (1999). Genetic counselling and testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: the Gent(le) approach. Dis Markers 15: 191-5.

Directive 98/44/EC of the European Parliament and the Council (1998). The legal protection of biotechnological inventions. J Officiel: L213.

Eccles DM, Simmonds P, Goddard J, et al. (1999). Management of hereditary breast cancer. Dis Markers 15: 187-9.

Eccles DM, Evans DGR, Mackay J and the UK Cancer Family Study Group (2000). Guidelines for a genetic risk based approach to advising women with a family history of breast cancer. J Med Genet 37: 203-9.

Ellwood JM, Cox B and Richardson AK (1993). The effectiveness of breast cancer screening by mammography in younger women. Online J Curr Clin Trials, Document no. 32.

Emery J, Watson E, Rose P and Andermann A (1999). A systematic review of the literature exploring the role of primary care in genetic services. Fam Pract 16: 426-45.

Emery J, Murphy M and Lucassen A (2000). Hereditary cancer - the evidence for current recommended management. Lancet Oncol (Preview): 9-16.

Evans DGR, Blair V, Greenhalgh R, Hopwood P and Howell A (1994). The impact of genetic counselling on risk perception in women with a family history of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 70: 34-8.

Evans DGR, Kerr B, Foulkes W, at al. (1998). False breast cancer family history in the cancer family clinic - a report of 8 families. Eur J Surg Oncol 24: 275-9.

Farrell S (1997). Screen yourself by mail order. The Times (London), Wednesday 24 September.

Floderus B, Barlow L and Mack TM (1990). Recall bias in subjective reports of familial cancer. Epidemiology 1: 318-21.

Ford D, Easton DF, Stratton M and the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium (1998). Genetic heterogeneity and linkage analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer families. Am J Hum Genet 62: 676-89.

FriendS (1996). Breast cancer susceptibility testing: realities in the post-genomic era. Nat Genet 13: 16-17.

Gail M, Brinton L, Bryar P, et al. (1989). Projecting individualised probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst 81: 1879.

Gayther SA and Ponder BAJ (1997). Mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and the possibilities for predictive testing. MolMed Today 3: 168-74.

Government response to the report from the House of Commons' Science and Technology Committee (Genetics and Insurance) (2001). London: Dept of Health.

Government response to the Human Genetics Advisory Commission's report on the implications of genetic testing for insurance (1998). Department of Trade and Industry Office of Technology, and the Department of Health, London, UK.

Hall MA and RichSS (2000). Laws restricting health insurers' use of genetic information: impact on genetic discrimination. Am J Hum Genet 66: 293-307.

Harper PS (1992). Genetic testing and insurance. J R Coll Phys Lond 26: 184-7.

Harper PS (1993). Insurance and genetic testing. Lancet 341: 224-7.

Hartmann L, Jenkins R, Schaid D, et al. (1999). Efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with a family history of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 340: 77-84.

Hauser G and Jenisch A (1998). Laws regarding insurance companies. J Med Genet 35: 526-8.

Heimdal K, Maehle L and Moller P (1999). Costs and benefits of diagnosing familial breast cancer. Dis Markers 15: 167-73.

Hodgson S, Milner B, Brown I, et al. (1999). Cancer genetics services in Europe. Dis Markers 15: 3-13.

Huggins M, Bloch M, Kanani S, et al. (1990). Ethical and legal dilemmas arising during predictive testing for adult-onset disease: the experience of Huntington disease. Am J Hum Genet 47: 4-12.

Human Genetics Advisory Commission (UK) (1997). The implications of genetic testing for insurance. London: Dept of Health.

Human Genetics Commission (2000). Whose Hands on your Genes? A discussion document on the storage, protection and use of personal genetic information. London: Department of Health.

Human Genetics Commission (2001). Public Attitudes to Human Genetic Information. Peoples panel quantitative study conducted for the Human Genetics Commission. London: Department of Health.

Hunt A (1992). The patient's viewpoint. Dis Markers 10: 205-10.

Institute of Medicine (1994). In Assessing Genetic Risks, ed. Committee on assessing genetic risks. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Josefson J (2000). Clinton outlaws genetic discrimination in federal jobs. Br Med J 320: 168.

Julian-Reynier C, Eisinger F, Chabal F, et al. (1996). Cancer genetics clinics: target populations and consultees' expectations. Eur J Cancer 32A: 398-403.

Kerber RA and Slattery ML (1997). Comparison of self-reported and database-linked family history of cancer data in a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 146: 244-8.

Knoppers BM (1999). Status, sale and patenting of human genetic material: an international survey. Nat Genet 22: 23-6.

Kristofferson U (1999). Clinical cancer genetic service in Sweden. Dis Markers 15: 49.

Lalloo F, Boggis CRM, Evans DGR, et al. (1998). Screening by mammography, women with a family history of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 34: 937-40.

Law JA (1997). Cancers detected and induced in mammographic screening: new screening schedules and younger women with family history of breast cancer. Br J Radiol 70: 62-9.

LeGrys J (1997). Actuarial considerations on genetic testing. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B352: 1057-61.

Lerman C, Narod SA, Schulman K, et al. (1996). BRCA1 testing in families with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer. A prospective study ofpatient decision making and outcomes. JAMA 275: 1885-92.

Lloyd S, Watson M, Waites B, et al. (1996). Familial breast cancer: a controlled study of risk perception, psychological morbidity and health beliefs in women attending for genetic counselling. Br J Cancer 74: 482-7.

Low L, King S and Wilkie T (1998). Genetic discrimination in life insurance: empirical evidence from a cross-sectional survey of genetic support groups in the United Kingdom. Br Med J 317: 1632-5.

Lucassen A and Parker M (2001). Revealing false paternity: some ethical considerations. Lancet 357: 1033-5.

MacDonald AS (1997). How will improved forecasts of individual lifetimes affect underwriting? Phil Trans R Soc Lond B352: 1067-75.

MacDonald AS, Waters HR, Wekwete CT (2000a). The genetics of breast and ovarian cancer. I. A model of family history. Research report No 00/01 of the Swiss Re/Heriot-Watt genetics initiative. Edinburgh: Heriot-Watt University.

MacDonald AS, Waters HR, Wekwete CT (2000b). The genetics of breast and ovarian cancer. II. A model of critical illness insurance. Research report No 00/02 of the Swiss Re/Heriot-Watt genetics initiative. Edinburgh: Heriot-Watt University.

Macmillan RD (2000). Screening women with a family history of breast cancer - results from the British Familial Breast Cancer Group. Eur J Surg Oncol 26: 149-52.

Medical Research Council (1992). Ethical Aspects of Human Genetic Testing: An Information Paper. Sydney, Australia: Medical Research Council.

Michel H (2000). Allowing gene patents could be an expensive mistake for the US. Nature 407: 285.

M0ller P, Evans DGR, Haites NE, et al. (1999a). Guidelines for follow-up of women at high risk for inherited breast cancer: consensus statement from the Biomed 2 demonstration programme on inherited breast cancer. Dis Markers 15: 207-11.

M0ller P, Reis MM, Evans G, et al. (1999b). Efficacy of early diagnosis and treatment in women with a family history of breast cancer. Dis Markers 15: 179-86.

M0ller P, Evans D, Anderson E, et al. (1999c). Use of cytology to diagnose inherited breast cancer. Dis Markers 15: 206.

Morrison PJ (1998a). Genetic testing and insurance in the UK. Clin Genet 54: 375-9.

Morrison PJ (1998b). Implications for genetic testing for insurance in the UK. Lancet 352: 1647-8.

Morrison PJ (2001). Insurance, genetic testing and familial cancer. U Med J 70: 79-88.

Morrison PJ, Steel CM, Vasen HFA, et al. (1999a). Insurance implications for individuals with a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Europe. Dis Markers 15: 159-65.

Morrison PJ, Steel CM, Nevin NC, et al. (1999b). Insurance considerations for individuals with a high risk of breast cancer in Europe: some recommendations. CME J Gynaecol 5: 272-7.

Müller H, Eeles RA, Wildsmith T, McGleenan T and Friedman S (2000). Genetic testing for cancer predisposition; an ongoing debate. Lancet Oncol 1: 118-24.

Murphree AL (1996). Retinoblastoma. In Emery and Rimoin's Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics, ed. D.L. Rimoin, M. Connor and R.E. Peyritz, 3rd edn, pp. 2585-2609. New York: Churchill Livingstone.

Narod SA, Goldgar D, Cannon-Albright L, et al. (1995a). Risk modifiers in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. Int J Cancer 64: 394-8.

Narod SA, Ford D, Devilee P, et al. (1995b). An evaluation of genetic heterogeneity in 145 breast-ovarian cancer families. Am J Hum Genet 56: 254-64.

Norum J and Tranebjaerg L (2000). Health, life and disability insurance and hereditary risk for breast and colorectal cancer. Acta Oncol 39: 189-93.

Pasini B and Pierotti MA (1999). Familial breast and ovarian cancer: genetic counseling and clinical management in Italy. Dis Markers 15: 41-3.

PembreyM and AnionwuE (1996). Ethical aspects of genetic screening and diagnosis. In Emery and Rimoin's Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics, ed. D.L. Rimoin,M. Connor andR.E. Peyritz, 3rd edn, pp. 641-53. New York: Churchill Livingstone.

Peto J, Collins N, Barfoot R, et al. (1999). Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in patients with early onset breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91: 943-9.

Rebbeck TR, Levin AM, Eisen A, et al. (1999). Breast cancer risk after bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1 mutation-carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 51: 1475-9.

Reichelt JG, Dahl AA, Heimdal K and M0ller P (1999). Uptake of genetic testing and pre-test levels of mental distress in Norwegian families with known BRCA1 mutations. Dis Markers 15: 139-43.

Reilly P (1996). Legal issues in genetic medicine. In Emery and Rimoin's Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics, ed. D.L. Rimoin, M. Connor and R.E. Peyritz, 3rd edn, pp. 655-66. New York: Churchill Livingstone.

Rothenberg KH, et al. (1997). Breast cancer, the genetic 'quick fix' and the Jewish community. Health Matrix 7: 97-124.

Royal College of Physicians of London (1991). Ethical Issues in Clinical Genetics. London: Royal College of Physicians.

Schoonmaker MM, Bernhardt BA and Holtzman NA (2000). Factors influencing health insurers' decisions to cover new genetic technologies. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 16: 178-89.

Science and Technology Committee (1995). Human Genetics. The Science and its Consequences. Third report of the Science and Technology Committee, House of Commons, HC41-I. London: HMSO.

Senior K (2000). Patent and be damned: the new slogan for human genetics? Mol Med Today 6: 225-6.

Skirton H (1999). Genetic nurses and counsellors - preparation for practice with families at risk of familial cancer. Dis Markers 15: 145-7.

Steel CM and Smyth E (1999). Molecular pathology of breast cancer and its impact on clinical practice. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 129: 1749-57.

Steel CM, Smyth E, Vasen H, et al. (1999). Ethical, social and economic issues in familial breast cancer: a compilation of views from the EC Biomed II Demonstration Project. Dis Markers 15: 125-31.

Stephens JC, Reich DE, Goldstein DB, et al. (1998). Dating the origin of the CCR5-32 AIDS-resistance allele by the coalescence of haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 62: 1507-15.

Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Caligo M, Eccles D, et al. (1999). Genetic testing for breast cancer predisposition in 1999: which molecular strategy and which family criteria? Dis Markers 15: 67-8.

StrattonMR (1996). Recent advances in understanding of genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Hum Mol Genet 5: 1515-19.

Strobl J, Cave E and Walley T (2000). Data protection legislation: interpretation and barriers to research. Br Med J 321: 890-2.

Struewing JP, Hartge P, Wacholder S, et al. (1997). The risk of cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews. N Engl J Med 336: 1401-8.

Tabar L, Fagerberg G, Day NE and Holmberg L (1987). What is the optimum interval between mammographic screening examinations? Br J Cancer 55: 547-51.

The Ad Hoc Committee on Genetic Testing/Insurance Issues (1995). Background statement. Genetic testing and insurance. Am J Hum Genet 56: 327-31.

Theis B, Boyd N, Lockwood G and Tritchler D (1994). Accuracy of family cancer history in breast cancer patients. Eur J Canc Prev 3: 321-7.

Thompson JA, Weisner GL, Sellers TA, et al. (1995). Genetic services for familial cancer patients: a survey of National Cancer Institute centers. J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 1446-55.

Thorlacius S, Struewing JP, Hartge P, et al. (1998). Population-based study of risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA2 mutation. Lancet 352: 1337-9.

Tyler A, Morris M, Lazarou L, Meredith L, Myring J and Harper PS (1992). Presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease in Wales 1987-90. Br J Psychiatry 161: 481-8.

Vandenbroucke JP (1998). Maintaining privacy and the health of the public. Br Med J 316: 1331-2.

Vasen HE, Haites NE, Evans DG, et al. (1998). Current policies for surveillance and management in women at risk of breast and ovarian cancer: a survey among 16 European family cancer clinics. Eur J Cancer 34: 1922-6.

Wadman M (1998). Privacy bill under fire from researchers. Nature 392: 6.

Watson EK, Shickle D, Quereshi N, et al. (1999a). The 'new genetics' and primary care: GP's views on their role and their educational needs. Fam Pract 16: 420-5.

Watson E, Andermann A, Clements A, et al. (1999b). Development and evaluation of educational materials for primary care on familial breast and ovarian cancer (abstr.). Dis Markers 15: 156.

White MT (1999). Underlying ambiguities in genetic privacy legislation. Genet Testing3: 341-5.

Zick CD, Smith KR, Mayer RN and Botkin JR (2000). Genetic testing, adverse selection and the demand for life insurance. Am J Med Genet 93: 29-39.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment