abaxial the under side of a frond or pinnae, facing away from an axis acicular needlelike, pointed acroscopic pointed towards the apex of the frond acrostichoid a solid covering of sori on the underside of the frond acuminate gradually tapering to a long point adaxial the upper surface of a frond or pinnae, facing an axis adnate fused with or broadly attached to an unlike part, for example, a pinna united with a rachis allelopathy the release of a chemical by one plant to inhibit the growth of nearby plants alternate not opposite anadromous with the first branch of a pinna aimed towards the frond's apex anastomosing with veins joining in a network rather than freely branching antheridium the sperm-producing male organ, found on the underside of the prothallus apogamous producing a sporophyte directly from a prothallus without sexual fertilization appressed pressed flat together archegonium the egg-producing female organ on a prothallus areole the space enclosed between veins articulate jointed, a natural breaking point usually on a stipe auricle an earlike lobe, frequently on a pinnae adjacent to its juncture with the rachis axis the main structural support of a frond or its subdivisions basiscopic pointing towards the base, frequently as on a lower pinnule biauriculate with two earlike lobes usually at the pinnae attachment to the rachis bipinnate twice divided blade the expanded leafy part of a frond above the stipe bulbil, bulblet a small bulblike growth on a frond that reproduces vegetatively calcareous type of soil or rocks containing lime ciliate bearing hairs (cilia)

circinate coiled with the apex of the emerging frond at the center of the coil cone modified leaves that carry sporangia cordate heart-shaped as in the base of a blade costa the midvein of a pinna crenate with scalloped margins, rounded teeth crested with frond, pinnae, or pinnule tips forking crisped with wavy margins crosier the curled unfurling frond, also called the fiddlehead

(sometimes spelled crozier) crown the growing point of a stem, producing fronds usually in a circle cultivar a cultivated variety of a species deciduous with fronds that die back at maturity, usually in the late fall or winter dentate with teeth along the margins dimorphic having two types of fronds, sterile and fertile, different in form discombobulated "the feeling an uninitiated fern amateur might have when encountering technical terms" (Palmer 2003)

disjunct from a different geographical area elliptic oval, widest in the middle and rounded at the ends endemic native to a particular country or region entire undivided, with smooth margins epiphyte growing on another plant, usually a tree, but not parasitic evergreen carrying fronds throughout the winter falcate sickle-shaped false indusia with frond margins rolled over the sori farina waxy powder, usually white or yellow, found on the undersides of blades fastigiate narrowly erect fertile bearing spores fiddlehead crosier, the unfurling curled frond free not united, usually in reference to veins frond the leaf of a fern including the stipe and blade gametophyte the sexual plant produced from spores, the prothallus bearing both sperms and an egg, which after fertilization will produce the sporophyte. gemma (plural, gemmae) an asexual bud that can reproduce the parent plant glabrous smooth glaucous dull bluish-green with a very thin, white waxlike coating hair composed of a single cell or row of cells only one cell thick hastate shaped like an arrowhead heterosporous having two types of spores usually differing in size imbricate overlapping of similar parts incised deeply cut indusium (plural, indusia) a small membrane or tissue covering the sori jointed breaking at certain points lacerate torn lamina the blade of a frond lanceolate lance-shaped leaflet a small division of a frond linear narrow and parallel-sided lobe a rounded but not separate segment medial midway between the midrib and margin, usually in reference to the sori midrib, midvein the central vein of a blade or its subdivisions monomorphic having one type of frond node the point on a stem where new growth is attached nothospecies a species derived from existing species, usually originating following hybridization between species. palmate like a hand peltate circular, centrally attached, usually in reference to indusia petiole a stalk, the stipe pinna (plural, pinnae) a primary division of a fern blade pinnate having pinnae in rows on both sides of an axis, once divided pinnate-pinnatifid once divided with deeply lobed pinnae, but not cut to the midrib pinnatifid deeply lobed but not cut to the axis pinnule the secondary division of a twice-divided blade proliferous having propagable buds or plantlets propagule a structure capable of forming new plants prothallus (plural, prothalli) the gametophyte, a small fertile plant bearing sperms and an egg pteridophyte a fern quadripinnate four times divided rachis the midrib of the blade, a continuation of the stipe reniform kidney-shaped rhizome a stem from which fronds are produced, can be erect to short- or long-creeping scale a multicellular flat growth, usually only one cell thick segment a small division of a divided frond serpentine soil or rocks high in magnesium and low in phosphorous and calcium supporting limited plant life serrate with teeth as on a saw blade sessile without a stalk simple undivided sinus a space between two lobes or segments sorus (plural, sori) a group of sporangia spinulose having spines along a margin sporangiaster a structure, usually consisting of a short stalk terminated by a cluster of bulbous and/or glandular cells and interspersed among sporangia in a sorus sporangium (plural, sporangia) the fern's spore-bearing structure spore a one-celled reproductive unit formed in the sporangium, produces a prothallus sporeling a very young fern, name given to one just developing from a prothallus sporophyte the familiar fern, the generation that produces spores stalk a supporting structure stalked attached with a stalk stellate branching in a starlike fashion, often referring to hairs sterile not producing spores stipe the stalk connecting the blade to the rhizome, petiole stolon a runner, capable of rooting at the tips and forming new plants strobilus (plural, strobili) a conelike reproductive structure at the tip of a fertile branch subevergreen evergreen in mild winters symbiotic two mutually supportive organisms growing together tripinnate three times divided truncate ending abruptly, perpendicular to an axis undulate wavy vascular bundles the internal conduction system carrying water and nutrients vegetative frond lacking fertile material vein strands of vascular tissue in the foliage, may be netted or free whorled three or more leaves growing at the same level around a stem wing frond blade tissue along a stipe or rachis

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