Pet Food Comparisons Petsumer Report
Making Pet Food at Home
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By-products from slaughtering cattle approved for use as human food are considered clean and approved for use in horticultural applications, pet food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, or they can be buried in landfills. All other byproducts are considered dirty and are stained to prevent accidental use, incinerated at 1000 C for sufficient time to result in a protein-free ash, and then disposed of in landfills. No rendered ruminant products can be used for agricultural purposes.
In order to sustain high populations of species such as cats and dogs, for example, other species such as whales, kangaroos, and horses must be killed in order to feed them. Few pet animals of any size can be sustained without meat, though it appears that dogs can live well on an appropriately balanced vegetarian diet. The commercial production of pet food has also been criticized as a waste of resources. The average cost of feeding an eighty-pound dog has been estimated at 8,353 for its lifetime (Shell).
In the mid-1930s, forming extruders were used to mix semolina flour and water to form pasta products. A few years later, extrusion technology that combined transport, mixing, and shaping operations was used to produce the first ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from precooked oat-flour dough (4). In the late 1930s, Robert Colombo and Carlo Pasquetti developed a corotating and intermeshing twin-screw extruder for mixing cellulose without the use of a solvent (5). In the middle of the 1940s, the first extrusion-cooked, expanded food products, corn snacks, were commercially produced using single-screw extruders (6). Dry expanded pet food, dry expanded ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, and textured vegetable protein, produced by singlescrew extruders, were introduced in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, respectively (4,6). In the early 1970s, Creusot-Loire had developed the twin-screw plastics extruder for food applications. Finally, the 1980s have brought rapid commercialization of the production...
The list of species of contemporary animal companions is a long one, but there is little question that dogs and cats are the predominant pets in U.S. households. According to the Pet Food Institute (Washington, DC www.petfoodinstitute.org), there were approximately 60 million pet dogs and 75 million pet cats in 2002. The American Kennel Club (Raleigh, NC www.akc.org) recognizes 150 breeds of dogs, although others have proposed that as many as 400 dog breeds inhabit the world. 3 The AKC assigns these breeds to the following groups, based on the uses for which the breeds were originally developed sporting, hound, working, terrier, toy, nonsporting, herding, and miscellaneous. The Cat Fanciers' Association (Manasquan, NJ www.cfainc.org) recognizes 41 breeds of cats, varying particularly in size and shape of body and head, color, color patterns, length and texture of hair, shape and color of eyes, and length and shape of ears and tail. The American Horse Council (Washington, DC...
How many times have you seen a cat prey on a chicken or, heaven forbid, a turkey But then cat food with blackbird or field mouse doesn' t sound very discerning to a petfood shopper. Let there be no doubt that Britain's petfood shoppers are discerning and willing to show the colour of their money to satisfy their pet' s taste buds.
The bioavailability and stability of natural and crystalline vitamins is affected by exposure to heat, ultraviolet (UV) light, moisture, pH (acids or bases), and trace min-erals. 3,4,11,12 Crystalline vitamin A stability has been improved with technology in the production process by incorporating the vitamin into a small beadlet of stable fat or gelatin. For vitamins A and E, esters are more stable than the alcohol forms. 12 Vitamin stability in premixes and complete feeds may also be enhanced by adding natural antioxidants or synthetic antioxidants such as ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), or butyl-ated hydroxyanisole (BHA). 4,12 Pelleting, a processing method commonly used in the swine industry, is destructive to most vitamins because it produces friction (abrasion), pressure, heat, and moisture. Pelleting may increase the bioavailability of niacin and biotin. 3,4 Extrusion is more destructive than pelleting because it produces higher moisture, pressure, heat, and redox...
Itants will be directly affected by the level of food availability. Feral cats that live in urban areas are often provided with a combination of discarded food from dustbins and supplies of proprietary cat food from local cat lovers. Consequently, the home range can support a far greater number of cats than a truly rural range, where food consists of live prey that must be hunted and killed before feeding can take place (Bradshaw, 1992). For the domestic cat that is provided with an abundance of tasty easily digestible food on demand it is not surprising that the home range requirements are relatively small. Routine neutering further reduces the space requirement by removing any sexual determination of territory size and as a result housing estates can support large numbers of cats living relatively peacefully together (Bradshaw, 1992). However, fights do occur and they are more likely when the local cat population is destabilised by the introduction of a newcomer, when one or more of...
Of the animals and may be recovered in active and stable forms for commercial use. There is considerable demand for enzymes throughout the world for food, biomedical, and other commercial applications. Worldwide sales of commercial enzymes were estimated at 1.5 billion for 1997 (1). Traditional enzymes such as pepsins, rennets, trypsins, and lipases are derived from animal tissues, whereas bromelain, ficin, papain, lipoxygenase, and amylases are derived from plants. Plant and animal enzymes represent a small fraction of commercial enzymes, with the greatest diversity of commercial enzymes coming from microorganisms that have been stringently evaluated and certified as safe. Examples of microbial enzymes are glucose oxidase, pectinesterases, cellulase, and glucose isomerase. Microbial enzymes are used as replacements or substitutes for homologous enzymes from animals or plants because they are relatively easier and cheaper to produce. Other contributory factors to the decline in the...
Today, polysaccharides are extensively used in the development of new products for aroma encapsulation. For example, many people focused on the controlled release of aroma compounds in confectionery products (mints, chewing gums). However, the understanding of carbohydrate-flavour interactions is not only relevant for the flavour industry. It also has important applications for cereal-based products that undergo thermal processes such as baking (cookies, crackers, cakes), extrusion cooking (breakfast cereals, snacks, dry pet food, etc.) or other drying processes (spray drying, tumble drying, etc.).
The herrings are commercially important in that they support a variety of food fish markets (Fig. 4). Until the late 1960s, the herring was reduced and utilized heavily as a source of oil and fish meal. The herring has and continues to be used for pet food. Herring as food for humans has had a long history. Today, they are sold fresh, frozen, smoked (kippers), and pickled. The smaller Atlantic herring, which are canned, is well known around the world as a sardine. The larger Atlantic herring are canned as kipper snacks and fillets. The roe from herring has recently found a market in Japan as a delicacy item known as kazunoko, as their local herring populations have declined. The herrings belong to the family Clupeidae. Both Atlantic and Pacific herrings are subspecies of the species Clupea harengus. The two fish look similar, characterized by a silvery body
There is controversy over the optimum period for which the diet is fed. This may range from 3 to 9 weeks. The author recommends a period of 8 weeks with a commercial diet. The commercial diets currendy available include lamb and barley, capelin and tapioca, lamb and rice, turkey and rice, and chicken and rice. The choice of diet will depend on the previous food items fed, although it may not be possible to know about all of the minor food ingredients in feline diets. The compliance with the diet trial will depend on the willingness of the cat to eat the food and not being able to access other sources of food for example, by hunting or being outdoors for long periods and eating food at another home, or even just eating cat food for other cats in the house. Consequently, it may prove difficult to evaluate a suspected food allergy problem for a cat allowed outdoors. The ideal candidate would be a single cat living exclusively indoors and willing to eat any diet provided.
Consequently, this edition of Feline Medicine is larger in a number of areas than both previous editions, reflecting the considerable increase of knowledge in feline medicine. The author list is expanded and we welcome new contributors as well as those from previous editions, together with feline specialists from the USA, Australia, Ireland and Belgium, as well as six veterinary institutes in the UK and the pet food industry.
Pet foods, dog and cat food 735 Pet food literature is limited, and much of the work is proprietary. As shown in Table 4, pet food is a large volume and value export from the United States. According to a 1998 survey by the American Pet Products Association, 59 of U.S. households own a pet and Americans spent more than 21 billion on their pets in 1997 (34). A complete discussion of the use of meat products in pet foods is presented by Corbin (35).
Harvesting is one of the most laborious jobs left in poultry production. Crews of bird catchers operate by night when the birds are immobilized due to their poor night vision. The catchers place the birds in shipping crates and load the crates on flatbed trucks. The accuracy and care of the catchers' operations strongly affect the processing plant yield in that bruises and broken limbs are trimmed off by the inspectors and used for pet food. A mechanical broiler loader was developed in England where a slow rotating drum with long rubber fingers carefully moves the birds into a tunnel equipped with conveyors that place the birds in the shipping crate. This equipment is operated by one person. Mechanical harvesters have not gained wide acceptance, but the diminishing labor force will require mechanical solutions in the future.
Consume about 5,133,5001 of food each year (about 73 by dogs and 26 by cats) resulting in 9.9 billion in pet food sales (14). Six companies account for 87 of the dog food, and five companies account for 87 of the cat food marketed through major food stores. Additionally, pet foods are sold as private label products through pet specialty stores, veterinarians, feed stores, and direct distribution. The trend has been toward more dry food products (88 of the total), less canned foods, and more specialty products (eg, high energy, high protein to reduce defecation and life-cycle products for growing and aging pets).