Relevance of phenolic antioxidants for functional food and comparative metabolic biology considerations

It is clear that food plants are excellent sources of phenolic phytochemicals, especially as bioactives with antioxidant property. As is evident, phenolic antioxidants from dietary sources have a history of use in food preservation, however, many increasingly have therapeutic and disease prevention applications (69-72). Therefore, understanding the nutritional and the disease protective role of dietary phytochemicals and particularly phenolic antioxidants is an important scientific agenda well...

FATTY AcIDs FoR FooD Ingredients

There is an increasing body of evidence supporting the conclusion that the fatty acids in the food we eat have a major influence on our physical and mental health (23). This is particularly the case with the essential omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic and linolenic acids, which are the precursors of the long chain PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosopentaenoic acid (EPA) in humans. In turn these long chain PUFAS are the direct precursors of bioactive...

Amylose Free Starch

The most widely used amylose free starches are obtained from waxy maize and rice and in all cases are considered non-GM natural variants of normal maize and rice. Staining starch with iodine readily identifies amylose free types normal starch will stain blue or purple whereas the starch produced from amylose free plants will stain red or brown or brownish red in color. Amylose free maize starches are generally considered to contain zero or almost zero amylose. Amylose free rice starches have...

References

Health benefits of soy isoflavonoids and strategies for enhancement a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 44 1-7, 2004. 2. Wu, A.H., R.G. Ziegler, PL. Horn-Ross, A.M. Nomura, D.W. West, L.N. Kolonel, J.F. Rosenthal, R.N. Hoover, M.C. Pike. Tofu and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 5 901-906, 1996. 3. Zheng, W., Q. Dai, L.J. Custer, X.O. Shu, W.Q. Wen, F. Jin, A.A. Franke. Urinary excretion of isoflavonoids and the risk of breast...

Gelation of Mixtures of Amylose and Amylopectin

Understanding the retrogradation behavior of normal starches, considered as mixtures of amylose and amylopectin, is even more complex than understanding amylose or amylopectin retrogradation in isolation. This is due to the possibilities for phase separation of the two types of molecules and for interactions between amylose and amylopectin to develop. Cooked normal starches have been considered phase separated systems of swollen granules consisting of amylopectin trapped within a continuous gel...

Phenolic antioxidants

A large variety of phenolic phytochemicals that have several beneficial functions on human health are present in plants and especially in fruits. The phenolic phytochemicals are generally present in their glycosidic and nonglycosidic forms. The glycosides are mainly confined to hydrophilic regions in the cells, such as in vacuoles and apoplasts, probably because of their higher water solubility (197,198). Glycosylation of the hydroxyl groups on the phenolic ring of a phenolic phytochemical...

Fortifying the Bile Acid Binding Ability

It is well known that soybean proteins have a cholesterol lowering effect in human serum (65,66). Several mechanisms for the regulation of serum cholesterol have been proposed. As a major one, an undigested insoluble fraction of soybean protein interacts with cholesterols and bile acids in the intestine, and they are excreted into an easing (67,68). Most probably, hydrophobic interactions play an important role in these interactions. Makino et al. found that the 114-161 residues in A1aB1b, one...

Amylopectin chain Length

As already stated, care must be taken when using the iodine binding assay for quantifying amylose content. In a more extreme example of this problem, the combination of the absent GBSSI activity and the ae mutation produces an amylose free maize starch that stains blue or purple and appears to have an amylose content of 15-26 (194). This is because the ae mutation causes a decrease in starch branching enzyme activity (24), which results in the formation of long chain amylopectin (104), which...

Micronutrients Alleviating Nutritional Disorders By Nutraceuticals

Ever since the discovery of vitamins, there has been a great interest in deciphering the effects of food constituents on human health. The requirements for a healthy life with a balanced metabolism (metabolic homeostasis) and preservation of the body cell mass require a protein balance having all the essential amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and micronutrients (1,2). Approximately 40 micronutrients (the vitamins, essential minerals, and other compounds needed in small amounts for...

Biochemical Markers for Antioxidant Functionality

Vattem and Kalidas Shetty CONTENTS 10.2 Direct Measurement of Reactive Oxygen 10.3 Antioxidant 10.3.1 Antioxidant Assays Based on Free Radical 10.3.3 Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma 10.3.4 Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) 10.3.5 b-carotene Oxidation (Bleaching) 10.4 Lipid Oxidation 10.4.2 LDL Resistance to 10.4.3 F2 10.5 DNA Oxidation 10.5.2 Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized 10.5.3 Glutathione 10.5.5 Superoxide 10.5.7 Xanthine Oxidase and Uric 10.5.8 NADPH 10.6 Plant...

Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

Arachidonic acid and its metabolites play key roles in cell growth, signaling, and adhesion, and are key mediators of the inflammatory and immune responses. Arachidonic acid is released from plasma membrane phospholipids (i.e., phosphatidylcholine) by phospholipase A2, where it can serve as a signaling molecule (autocrine or paracrine), or alternatively be metabolized by the monooxygenase (MO), lipoxygenase (LO), or cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Natural product and pharmacological inhibitors of...

Cranberry synergies with functional phytochemicals and other fruit extracts

Recent research has documented the evidence that whole foods, and not single compounds, have a better functionality in maintaining our health against many of the antioxidant diseases. Recent work on the effect of wine has shown that resveratrol is responsible for the decrease in atherogenesis in rats (101,102). However, when resveratrol was used as a supplement in diet such an effect was not seen. Other researchers have shown that the combination of resve-ratrol and quercetin exerts a synergic...

Introduction and role of phenolic secondary metabolites

In plants, primary products such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, photosynthetic components, and nucleic acids are common to all they are involved in the primary metabolic processes of building and maintaining cells. In contrast, secondary metabolites do not appear to have such a vital biochemical role, but studies have indicated a role of these chemicals in defense and stress response of plants. Some of the most abundant stress induced secondary metabolites synthesized by plants are...

Growth Factor Signaling

Growth factors are very important in the normal and malignant development of the mammary gland, and include epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), amphiregulin (AR), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-a), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b). These factors have diverse effects and work on different cell types, but...

Stress and Elicitor Induced Sprouting

In many legumes such as soy (192), pea (193), fava bean (194), mung bean (195) and fenugreek (196), sprouting in combination with biological, chemical, and physical stress linked elicitation can stimulate phytochemicals relevant in chemoprevention. Preliminary results have provided empirical evidence for a link between proline biosynthesis and oxidation, as well as stimulation of G6PDH during phenolic phytochemical synthesis (180,188,197-199). In light mediated sprout studies in peas (Pisum...

Functional Phytochemicals from Cranberries Their Mechanism of Action and Strategies to Improve Functionality

Vattem and Kalidas Shetty CONTENTS 7.1 Introduction Phenolic 7.2 Chemical Nature and Biosynthesis of Phenolic 7.2.1 Phenolic Phytochemicals from 7.2.1.2 Cranberry 7.2.2 Oxidative Stress Mediated 7.2.2.1 Antioxidant Defense 7.2.2.2 Phenolic Phytochemicals in Nutritional Management of Antioxidant 7.2.3 Biological Function of Phenolic 7.2.3.1 Biological Functionality of Cranberry Phenolics 163 7.2.3.2 Ellagic 7.2.3.3 Alternate Model for the Function of Ellagic Acid and Related Phenolic...

Estrogen Signaling

Ovarian hormones have dichotomous effects when applied to the biology of the breast. On one hand, prolonged exposure through early menarche, belated menopause, or postmeno-pausal hormone replacement therapy increases the risk of breast cancer. On the other hand, an early full term pregnancy can significantly reduce breast cancer risk to humans (51), and in rodents pregnancy levels of estrogen and progesterone will impart a significant protection against carcinogen induced breast cancer (52,53)....

Biological Function Of Phenolic Phytochemicals

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now associated with manifestation of several oxidation-linked diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes epidemiologi-cal studies indicate that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with lower incidences of such oxidation linked diseases. These disease protective effects of fruits and vegetables are now linked to the presence of antioxidant vitamins and phenolic phyto-chemicals having antioxidant activity, which support the...

CYP1A1 and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor AhR

The CYP1A1 p450 monooxygenase enzyme has recently been identified as a target of chemopreventative strategies. The protoxin dimethylbenz a anthracene (DMBA) is metabolized by CYP1A1 (and CYP1B1) into a DNA damaging agent that is a potent initiator of breast cancer (64). The CYP1A1 gene also catalyzes the conversion of estradiol to form hydroxylated estrogen high estrogen levels are associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers. The CYP1A1 enzyme is capable of metabolizing...

Glutathione Reduced GSH and oxidized GSSG

Glutathione (GSH, -glutamylcysteinylglycine) and its oxidized form (GSSG) (Figure 10. 7) together form the first line of defense against the cellular protection against reactive oxygen species (22,23,106,107). They carry out their protective functions by reducing ROS via their thiol groups, and therefore are involved in a variety of processes in the cellular systems that involve generation of free radicals such as detoxification of xenobiotics, reduction of hydroperoxides, and synthesis of...

Plant phenolics in human health and as antioxidants

It is evident that plant phenolic compounds constitute one of the most numerous and widely distributed groups of substances with more than 8000 phenolic structures currently known (28). In addition to stress linked phenolics coming only from the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways, a number of the phenolic compounds are found in plants, including the flavonoids that contribute to the characteristic flavor and fragrance of vegetables, fruits, tea, and wine. These compounds, which come from...

Biosynthesis of phenolic metabolites and ldopa

Methyl Salicylate Pathway

Plant phenolics are synthesized using several different routes. This constitutes a heterogeneous group from a metabolic point of view. Two basic pathways are the shikimic acid pathway and the acetate-malonate (polyketide) pathway. The shikimic acid pathway represents the principal mode of accumulation of plant stress related phenolic compounds. The acetate-malonate pathway is also an important source of phenolic secondary products for biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids that have many...

Antimitotic Activity of Lunasin

Lunasin is the small subunit peptide of a seed specific methionine rich 2S albumin (Gm2S-1) (74). It consists of 43 amino acids, and contains the cell adhesion motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) followed by eight aspartic acid residues at its C-terminal end. Lunasin was found to arrest mitosis, leading to cell death, when the lunasin gene was transfected and expressed in mammalian cells (8). In addition to arresting cell division, the lunasin peptide caused abnormal spindle fiber elongation, chromosomal...

Nadph

Of many proton pumps on the cell membrane 159,160 . The partially hydrophobic ellagic acid and flavonoids can also directly interact with the proton pumps and modulate their function. In addition, phenolic phytochemicals, especially flavonoids, have been shown to be able to interact with the membranes 179,180 . Such an interaction can alter the permeability of the cell and cause changes in the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane, causing rapid influx of protons into the cytosol...

Action of the soybean isoflavone genistein

The mechanistic coupling of mitochondrial ATP generation and oxPPP through proline metabolism that supports normal cells during stress and which appears to be dysfunctional in many tumorigenic cells provides a foundation for a possible model mechanism for the chemopreventive action of phenolic antioxidants, such as genistein, against certain cancers 100 . When soybean is consumed, its main phenolic phytochemical, the isoflavone genistein, is converted by intestinal flora bioprocessing and...

Introduction

Many parts of the world, especially low-income countries, are facing the double burden of diet-related chronic disease along with infectious diseases. Analysis by the World Health Organization states that 80 of chronic disease deaths now occur in low income and less developed countries. As indicated in the preface of this book, it is evident that globally there are more overweight and obese adults 1 billion than those who are malnourished 0.8 billion , and obesity-related diseases seriously...

Contents

Clonal Screening and Sprout Based Bioprocessing of Phenolic Phytochemicals for Functional Foods 1 Kalidas Shetty, Fergus M. Clydesdale, and Dhiraj A. Vattem Molecular Design of Soybean Proteins for Enhanced Nobuyuki Maruyama, Evelyn Mae Tecson-Mendoza, Yukie Maruyama, Motoyasu Adachi, and Shigeru Utsumi Genetic Modification of Plant Starches for Food Applications 51 Jeffrey D. Klucinec and Peter L. Keeling Genetic Modification of Plant Oils for Food Uses 85 Molecular Biotechnology for...

Xray crystallography

When we started X-ray crystallography of soybean proteins, the crystal structures of the 11S globulin had not been reported only those of French bean phaseolin and jack bean canavalin, 7S globulins, had been determined 24-26 . We tried to determine the crystal structures of the native and recombinant P3 by the molecular replacement method using the protein structure models of phaseolin and canavalin as a search model. As a result, we determined the three dimensional structure of P3 by molecular...

Phenolic Phytochemical Ingredients And Benefits

Phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants to protect themselves against biological and environmental stresses such as pathogen attack or high energy radiation exposure 1,2 . These compounds involved in the plant defense response are one of the most abundant classes of phytochemicals and are also invariably important components of our diets 3,4,5 . Commonly consumed fruits such as apples, bananas, grapes, and several types of berries and their beverages are examples...