Soluble Starch Synthase

Soluble starch synthase (SS) isoforms are all members of the glycosyltransferase class of enzymes. SS is more formally named ADPglucose:1,4-a-d-glucan-4-a-d-glucosyltrans-ferase (E.C. 2.4.1.21). Like GBSSI, the SS enzymes are also associated with starch granules, but are also present in the stroma of the amyloplast, leading to their classification as soluble starch synthase. SS catalyses the transfer of glucose from ADP-glucose to an acceptor glucan chain, by a mechanism that has been described as distributive (46).

Four SS forms have been identified, mapped and cloned from several species (218). Although the various isoforms are believed to be present in all starch synthesizing cells, they appear to have different relative activities in different species and tissues. SS is believed to be primarily responsible for amylopectin synthesis, and there is evidence that each isoform is responsible for the synthesis of different chain lengths. SSI has been cloned and mapped from several species, but the only known mutant type described so far is in rice (159). SSI appears to be primarily responsible for synthesizing shorter chains of amylopectin based on biochemical studies of the isolated enzyme (38) and structural studies of the rice mutant (159). The SSII and SSIII isoforms appear to be involved in synthesizing the intermediate chains of amylopectin, as evidenced by changes observed with mutant and transgenic rice (40,63,221). The precise role of SSIV remains to be elucidated, and it may even be revealed that SSIV is a subclass of the SSIII isoform. All of these classifications are consistent with evidence obtained from starch isolated from potatoes transformed with antisense constructs to the potato enzymes (51,68).

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