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PhotoJobz Earn From Your Photos

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PhotoJobz Earn From Your Photos Summary


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Digital Photography

Digital photography begins with choosing a digital camera and computer interface. c This method has several differences from conventional SLR-based photography. The advantages of digital photography over conventional methods include instantaneous results and quick archiving, the ability to enhance picture quality, and the ability to change facial features (morphing) to assess the effects of the proposed surgery. The major drawback of digital photography and conventional photography is lack of image resolution and clarity. A digital image is composed of pixels or tiny dots of information expressed as the pixel resolution width x height. Therefore, an image with a resolution of 1024 x 768 will be 14.2 x 10.7 on a monitor at 72 dots inch, and 1.4 x 1.1 on a printed page at 720 dots inch. The pixel resolution of a digital camera indicates the density of the image sensors in the camera chip. This chip is very expensive and so the price of a good-quality digital camera is high. At the...

Basic Aesthetic Photography Equipment Guidelines

For color pictures, the background elements should include a light blue nondis-tracting fabric or screen for black and white photography, a white background provides good contrast with skin tones. Keeping the patient a fixed distance of approximately 4 feet from the background is essential in obtaining uniform pre-and postoperative photographs.

Contributors and Arrangement of the Material

To aid understanding and increase interest, most entries are illustrated with clear diagrams and dramatic photographs. Each entry is followed by cross-references to related entries, and most have a list of suggested readings and or Internet resources for further exploration or elaboration. Specialized or unfamiliar terms are defined in the margin and collected in a glossary at the end of each volume. Each volume also contains an index, and

Search and Response Behaviour

Figure 2 Patterns of mycelial outgrowth of four cord-forming basidiomycota across compacted soil in 24 x 24 cm trays from x cm (a-e) and y cm (f) Beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood inocula. (a) Coprinus picaceus, (b) Hypholoma fasciculare, (c) Phallus impudicus, (d) Resinicium bicolor and (e and f) Phanerochaete velutina. Digital images (a)-(d) courtesy Alaa Alawi, and digital images (e) and (f) from photographs taken by Rory Bolton. Figure 2 Patterns of mycelial outgrowth of four cord-forming basidiomycota across compacted soil in 24 x 24 cm trays from x cm (a-e) and y cm (f) Beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood inocula. (a) Coprinus picaceus, (b) Hypholoma fasciculare, (c) Phallus impudicus, (d) Resinicium bicolor and (e and f) Phanerochaete velutina. Digital images (a)-(d) courtesy Alaa Alawi, and digital images (e) and (f) from photographs taken by Rory Bolton.

Visuospatial Function

There are some indications that drawing to command (e.g., the patient is requested to draw a clock'') is more sensitive than copying drawings. Additionally, copying three-dimensional figures such as a cube tends to reveal impairment more readily than copying unidimensional figures. Many of these procedures, however, may confound constructional dysfunction with problems of praxis or planning. Visuoperceptual impairment may in part underlie impairment associated with naming objects. This is supported by the fact that naming impairment is increased when photographs of objects or line drawings are used rather than the actual objects.

Anterior Horn Tissues from FALS and SALS Cases

The optical microscopic photographs of motor neurons in anterior horn tissues from (a) a control case and (b) the familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) case. The accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) can be seen in (b). Picture (b) was quoted from 67

The changing concept of homology

Figure 1.4 (a) Ectopic compound eye (white arrowhead) formed adjacent to the normally Located compound eye (on the right, black arrowhead) in the head of a Drosophila fly this is the result of the ectopic expression of the ey gene. (b) Ectopic compound eye formed, in this case, on the leg of a fly, under the control of an ectopically expressed mouse Pax-6 gene introduced experimentally. In both (a) and (b), note the similarity of the ommatidial organization and interommatidial bristles, in the ectopic eyes and in their normal counterpart in (a). Photographs supplied by Professor Walter Gehring Figure 1.4 (a) Ectopic compound eye (white arrowhead) formed adjacent to the normally Located compound eye (on the right, black arrowhead) in the head of a Drosophila fly this is the result of the ectopic expression of the ey gene. (b) Ectopic compound eye formed, in this case, on the leg of a fly, under the control of an ectopically expressed mouse Pax-6 gene introduced experimentally. In both...

Manipulating Expressions Directly

The subjects were recruited for an experiment on electromyographic (EMG) measurement of facial muscle activity. When they arrived at the laboratory, they were told about the small electrical impulses generated by muscle activity, and that we would be examining the effects of looking at different kinds of pictures on this EMG activity. The supposed recording machine was an old, actually useless piece of apparatus, but it looked persuasively scientific. Silver-cup recording electrodes appeared to be attached to the machine. The subjects were told that during the study I would record their facial muscle activity while they looked at photographs.

Exaggerating and Minimizing Expressions

A number of other studies of this general form were carried out, with consistent results (e.g., Kraut, 1982 Vaughan & Lanzetta, 1980, 1981 Zuckerman, Klorman, Larrance, & Spiegel, 1981). For example, in one study the subjects were induced to exaggerate or minimize their facial expressions in order to fool a supposed audience (Kleck et al., 1976). As we would expect, minimizing their facial expressions produced less intense feelings, and exaggerating them made the feelings more intense. In sum, it is quite clear that if people minimize their expressive behavior, they report feeling less intensely, and if they exaggerate their expressive behavior, their feelings are more intense. A somewhat similar procedure for inducing facial expressions also asked participants to communicate to an audience. In this case, the participants looked at photographs of happy or angry faces and then were asked to communicate as clearly as possible to some observers what the person in the photograph was...

Digital Image Analyses

Digital images may be collected by a wide range of options, digital camera or digital video on wide field epifluorescence microscope, 1P-LSM, and 2P-LSM. Collection and analyses of synchrotron images is a specialized area not covered in detail in this chapter.25,26 Once an image series or image stack is generated there are many options to analyse these images and depending on the specific requirements many commercial or freeware systems can be chosen. Key points to consider include gray level resolution, programming language, capacity for modification, design of macros or plug-ins, and memory requirements, capacity to perform operations on serial image stacks produced in confocal microscopy, or to perform object-based image analysis. Software may be from the microscope company directly or special software companies. All the major companies constantly extend the features on

India and Asia collide

In the mid-1970s Paul Tapponnier, a young French assistant at the University of Montpellier, had joined a young American professor of geophysics at M.I.T., Peter Molnar, to study the great earthquakes that shake Asia now and then. These earthquakes occur along great faults and leave their signs on the surface for some time.3 Paul Tapponnier had the idea of matching the maps of the epicenters of the great earthquakes against the remarkable photographs that the American Landsat satellite was beginning to take. Each photograph provides a homogeneous view of the earth's surface over thousands of square kilometers. By careful observation, Tapponnier discovered the largest strike-slip faults in the world,4 even more imposing than the San Andreas Fault in California or the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Clear as a knife-cut, they can be traced in an orderly fashion, sometimes for thousands of kilometers. Two such faults partially define the boundaries of the Tibetan Plateau, primarily to...

Open versus Closed Adoption

Since the early 1980s there has been a trend toward openness in adoption. In the placement of older children, good adoption practice dictates providing each child with a life book that has information and photographs about their history. Often these children are encouraged to maintain contact with the previous foster mother and with relatives, such as grandparents, in the extended birth family. In infant adoption, a birth mother may choose the parents for her baby, but completely open arrangements where there is an ongoing relationship between birth and adoptive families are still rare. Semi-open adoption is more usual. It may vary from little more than a single meeting between the birth mother and adoptive parents, with no disclosure of names or discussion of future contact, to annual exchanges of photographs and information and the promise of more contact when the child grows up (McRoy et al.). Professionals describe open-adoption arrangements as a process in which all parties move...

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

The main form of art is body adornment. Women make bead necklaces out of organic pods, bones, shells, and little sticks. They also sew skins into skirts which are also sometimes adorned with beads. For many years the Hadza have been getting glass beads from their neighbors such as the Maasai. They will use these to make headbands, which they were doing as long ago as the earliest photographs in the 1930s. Men will carve various items

Photography of the

Photography of eye specimens, well described by Eagle,26 is a vital form of documentation, particularly for purposes of comparison with clinical ophthalmic images (slitlamp fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography, and in forensic examinations, e.g., deaths from child abuse, see Diagonostic Ophthalmic Pathology of Suspected Child Abuse ). Because the eye is small, good magnification is required from camera systems. Lighting can be difficult, as the eye has wet and translucent surfaces that cause reflections of necessary good even lighting. The inside of the eye is (in effect) a deep dark hole, and small camera apertures (f32-f16) are required for good depth of field (range of focus).

Associative Agnosia

Examples Agnosia

Unlike apperceptive agnosia, a person with associative agnosia can make recognizable copies of a stimulus that he or she may not recognize subsequently and can also successfully perform matching tasks. Teuber elegantly referred to this deficit as perception stripped of meaning.'' As in the case of apperceptive agnosia, recognition is influenced by the quality of the stimulus and performance on three-dimensional objects is better than on photographs, and performance on photographs is better than on line drawings. The recognition deficit appears to result from defective activation of information pertinent to a given stimulus. There is a failure of the structured perception to activate the network of stored knowledge about the functional, contextual, and categorical properties of objects that permit their identification. In effect, this is a deficit in memory that affects not only past knowledge about the object but also the acquisition of new knowledge. Unlike individuals with...

Selfesteem Social Comparison And Response To Personal Cues

A very different kind of impact of our activities on our self-concepts was discovered by Kathy Wilcox, who noticed an interesting experience she frequently had while looking through one of the conventional women's magazines. Initially, she was interested in the advertising pictures that make up the bulk of the content. After a few minutes, however, she found that she was feeling uncomfortable and would stop looking at the magazine. She realized her reaction was to the pictures of superslender models in the photographs. As a number of previous studies have demonstrated, women are made uncomfortable by the standards embodied literally, if not very substantially, in the models who appear in the media (Crouch & Degelman, 1998 Pinhas, Toner, Ali, Garfinkel, & Stuckless, 1999 Posavac, Posavac, & Posavac, 1998). However, this observation contains an apparent paradox Why would these magazines still exist if all women reacted with discomfort One possibility is that the effects occur only among...

Personal Privacy Considerations

The first precaution can be accomplished by restricting the sections of DNA that are amplified, analyzed and utilized in the iDNAfication profile to the non-coding regions of DNA between our functional genes. By definition, markers selected from these regions will not disclose any biologically significant information. Rather, like fingerprints, they could merely provide a unique pattern to match in seeking to identify an unknown person. Even photographs are useful mainly as patterns to match, rather than for what they can independently tell us about the person pictured in them. Serendipitously, individual variation is also vastly more pronounced in this so called junk DNA (since mutations can accumulate in these sections without having any adverse effect on genomic function), making it more attractive for iDNAfication purposes on scientific grounds as well.

What are Fluorescence Inhibitors and Coatings of Debris

However, there is evidence in Arabidopsis thaliana that flavonoids are located in purportedly living cells not only in the cytoplasm, but also within nuclei. Flavonoids were stained with the fluorescent reagent diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethylester (DPBA) and appeared in nuclei in plasmolyzed cells in the root elongation zone (Peer et al. 2001). Plasmolysis was obviously elicited to test the vital status of the cells but it is not clear if the cells were alive at the time the photographs were taken. Saslowsky et al. (2005) showed flavonoid localization with DPBA in all protoplasm including nuclei of root cells, but did not mention viability. The reality of phenolic in vivo binding to nuclei is of importance for plant FCM and needs to be corroborated on a broad scale.

Environmental Determinism Doctrine Of See Nature Versus Nurture Theories

This conjecture (Pettijohn & Tesser, 1999) states that exposure to highly threatening, stressful, pessimistic, or stagnant environmental conditions (e.g., social economic conditions in the U.S. from 1932-1945) causes people to show a relatively greater preference for individuals with mature facial features (e.g., small eye size, thin cheeks, large chins), as compared to preferences for individuals with non-mature neonate facial features (e.g., large eye size, round cheeks, small chins) under less threatening, less stressful, and more prosperous optimistic existing environmental conditions. The environmental security hypothesis predicts that under high threat conditions, people choose mature-face features because the attributes associated with such features - such as independence, maturity, and competence - fulfill the functional roles and characteristics people value when stressed or threatened. However, results from investigations (via photographs)...

Persistent Mycelial Networks Sit and Wait Strategy

Figure 3 Reallocation of mycelial biomass of Phanerochaete velutina following colonization of new wood resources. (a-c) Extending from a 0.5 cm3 beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood inoculum to an 8 cm3 wood resource, in 24 x 24 cm trays of non-sterile soil, after, respectively, 11, 15 and 20 days. Note regression of much of the mycelium not connected to a new resource, and thickening of connected cords (c). (d-g) Growth in 57 x 57cm soil trays, with four new wood resources (located half way along each microcosm side) added after 36 days in (e)-(g). (d) Control with no additional wood resources. Images were captured 78-85 days after adding the central wood inoculum. Note thickening of cords connecting inoculum with new resources (f and g), and thinning of other areas compared with 78 days control having no additional resources (e). Outgrowth from the newly colonized lower resource is evident from 78 days (Perspex blocks in the corners of trays were for support of other replicates in stacks)....

The Preliminary Observation of Enzyme Activity in Organic Solvents

The results were recorded photographically after the enzyme mixtures were stirred for 10 min. Figure 6 shows the photographs of three enzymes suspended in vinyl acetate and 2-methyl-2-propanol vial 1 lipase N vial 2 lipase P-1, vial 3 alcalase 2.5 L in vinyl acetate and vial 4 alcalase 2.5 L in 2-methyl-2-pro-

Covert Rehearsal Of Nonverbal Materials

Watkins and T. M. Graefe explored whether effective covert rehearsal of pictures was possible. They presented pairs of thumbnail pictures or photographs of faces and after each pair cued one of the pictures for covert rehearsal. The cue came when the pictures were no longer present, thus the depth of initial encoding of the two pictures was held constant. They found that those pictures that were covertly rehearsed were better recognized than those that were not. In addition, they found that after a sequence of pictures were presented, and then any one of them cued for rehearsal, the rehearsed picture was better recognized than the others. Thus, the pictures could be conjured up in some fashion well after they had disappeared and covertly rehearsed in an effective manner. Later, in 1991, D. J. Read, R. Hammersley, S. Cross-Calvert, and E. McEadzen showed that in a face identification situation, just as with verbal materials, the timing of the covert rehearsal or...

Complications after splenectomy and asplenism

Figure 11.16. (a) Patient with hepato-splenomegaly due to lymphoma with the outlines of the liver and spleen marked on the skin. and (b) a spleen resected for hypersplenism in a patient with lymphoma. (photographs courtesy of Mr T Davidson, UCL Medical School). Figure 11.16. (a) Patient with hepato-splenomegaly due to lymphoma with the outlines of the liver and spleen marked on the skin. and (b) a spleen resected for hypersplenism in a patient with lymphoma. (photographs courtesy of Mr T Davidson, UCL Medical School).

The prophylactic mastectomy protocol

After a psychological assessment, a more detailed surgical consultation is arranged to discuss the type of procedure best suited to the woman and whether a one- or two-stage procedure is preferable. This would usually involve discussion of three basic options (1) total bilateral mastectomy, (2) bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction, either with implants or tissue flaps, and (3) bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy that retains the overlying skin and nipple areolar complex. The potential complications are also discussed together with the expected cosmetic result. Surgeons will usually have photographs available for women to view if they wish.

Lpcrrflp Performance and Analysis

Amplifying large DNA fragments requires high-fidelity DNA polymerase enzymes, e.g., TAKARA LA (Takara). The conditions for LPCR amplification require optimizing primer, magnesium ion, and enzyme concentrations as well as thermal cycling number and timing. In a typical LPCR reaction protocol, 1-100 ng of template DNA is amplified in the presence of 1 mM of each primer, 300 mM of dNTPs, 2.5 mM MgCl2, and 1.5 U of TAKARA LA polymerase. The amplified LPCR products are purified on agarose gels, then are digested with a restriction enzyme, e.g., Clal. The digested DNA fragments are then electro-phoresed on 6 polyacrylamide gel for a constant period of time at constant voltage. A reference DNA marker is run along with the digested DNAs in the first, middle, and last lanes to help identify the size of the restricted DNA fragments. After staining with ethidium bromide, the restriction pattern is visualized and photographed with a digital camera.

Glycolic acid Efficacy

We found one randomised and one non-randomised trial. The RCT (10 non-pregnant and non-nursing Asian women with skin phototypes IV or V, suffering moderate-to-severe facial melasma) compared the use of peelings with glycolic acid on one side of the face versus no peelings on the other side.27 All women received concomitant twice-daily applications of a cream containing 10 glycolic acid and 2 hydroquinone, as well as SPF15 sunscreen. An independent evaluator assessed the results using a Munsell colour chart and photographs. Participants also assessed the results. Treatments were randomly allocated to a side of the face, and no placebo was used to conceal the intervention. The physician evaluation found improvement in the side using peeling in all cases, and improvement in control sides in 8 10 cases.

Molecular Methods For Analyzing Uncultured Bacteria

Semi-automated quantification techniques, which combine FISH or other fluorescence staining methods with digital image analysis, are less tedious than manual cell counting and can accurately quantify planktonic cells as well as clustered bacteria in flocs and biofilms. Epifluorescence microscopes equipped with digital cameras and confocal laser scanning microscopes are used to acquire images of fluorescing bacterial cells. Sharp confocal images, which contain only objects located in the current

Classification of Acute Cellular Rejection Table 202

The most widely used classification system is the Banff working schema, which is now congruent with the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) categories (17,22). The Banff system scores each element (infiltrate, tubulitis, arteritis, glomerulitis) on a 0 to 3 scale (1, mild 2, moderate 3, severe) as the basis for grading. The Banff system promoted standardization of definitions however, the interobserver repro-ducibility for component grading of the Banff system is disappointing, with kappa values of 0.4 (in the poor range) (23). The scoring for tubulitis and arteritis was improved by scoring photographs, indicating that finding the relevant lesion on the slide was a limiting factor scoring of the percent infiltrate or glomerulitis was not improved by scoring a photograph, suggesting intrinsic problems in the definitions or methodology. The major remaining issues for the future are to define more markers for treatable rejection in the suspicious category and...

Silver Spring Monkeys

In the early summer of 1981, an animal activist named Alex Pacheco asked Taub for a job at IBR. Taub told Pacheco that there was no paying job available at the institute, but that he was welcome to work at the laboratory on a volunteer basis. Taub was not aware that Pacheco was one of the founding members of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). During his five months at IBR, Pacheco took photographs of the conditions in the facility. In addition, while Taub was away on vacation, he brought five scientists (two zoo veterinarians* and three animal activists, two of whom were primatologists) into the facility to witness the conditions in the laboratory. On September 22, 1981, in response to the affidavits of the five scientists alleging grossly unsanitary conditions and inadequate care and the photographs provided by Pacheco, the Montgomery County police raided IBR, confiscating the primates and seizing laboratory records. Taub was subsequently charged with cruelty to...

Research submarines and remotely operated vehicles ROVs

A research submarine is comparable in size to a delivery truck. Those in service typically carry a pilot and one or two scientists in a pressure sphere about 2 m in diameter. Surrounding the sphere is equipment for life support, propulsion, ascent and descent, and scientific purposes (manipulator arms, cameras, specialized payload in a carrying basket) (Heirtzler and Grassle, 1976). Research submarines bring the ecologist into the deep sea and thereby confer large benefits by correcting the tunnel vision that deep-sea scientists acquire from the study of deep-sea photographs. Further, research submarines permit a wide range of ecological experiments. For example, trays of defaunated sediment have been placed on the seabed for study of colonization rates (Snelgrove et al., 1992), and dyed sediment has been spread and subsequently sampled for estimates of sediment mixing rates (Levin et al., 1994).

ProM cues must be noticed

At least some of these conditions for failing to notice ProM cues are directly relevant to the laboratory methods that have been used to explore episodic ProM task performance. Consider a study by Maylor, Darby, Logie, Delia Sala, and Smith (2002) in which the subjects, children between 6 and 11 years of age, were shown photographs of teachers, the ongoing task being to name each teacher. The study examined the children's performance on two different ProM tasks. For one of them, the subjects were required to indicate which teachers were wearing glasses for the

Germplasmcontinuity Theory

emergent properties of physical parts is the liquid nature of water when the gaseous elements of hydrogen and oxygen are combined. An example of emergent properties in psychological parts is the apparent motion (called the phi phenomenon movement) created in a perceiver when rapidly flipping a series of overlapping still photographs (cf., short-circuit theory - suggests that apparent or phenomenal movement is due to a short-circuit between the regions of the brain aroused by each stimulus and, consequently, generates newly-structured unities or perceptions). The Gestaltist emphasis on the wholism of perceptual experience has been accepted largely in modern perceptual theories, where it often is called top-down (or context-determined) processing of stimulus information. In a learning memory context, the Gestalt conception of memory is comparable to Aristotle's earlier theory that perception is stamp-ed in as a corresponding memory trace cf., the German philosopher Friedrich Eduard...

Performancebased Testing

The Work Sampling System (WSS Dichtelmiller, Jablon, Dorfman, Marsden, & Meisels, 1994 Meisels, 1993, 1995, 1997 Meisels, Liaw, Dorfman, & Nelson, 1995) is an example of the combination of development- and performance-based approaches to assessment, designed for application in classrooms from preschool through fifth grade. There is a developmental checklist covering seven domains that is completed by teachers three times per year. The performance-based component is a portfolio of the children's work that is to be systematically compiled to represent their growth on both core content and work that is specifically representative of the child. The core areas include language literacy, mathematical thinking, scientific thinking, social studies, and the arts. Only the core items are preplanned, and the total number of items collected per year is 45. How and what are collected are worked out by the teachers with the children. The portfolio information, as performance, can be collected in a...

Analysis of the Questioned Item

The analysis involves the dissection of an item into its component parts, properties, and characteristics that can be directly observed and measured. The analysis of the questioned item is always performed before any examination on the known item. In pedal evidence, one is evaluating a bloody footprint or sock liner image to determine the quantity and quality of the image and whether it is sufficient for comparison purposes. A good number of marks or images may be present, but is there sufficient clarity (detail) to use them all Every aspect must be evaluated and then recorded using photographs and casts of impressions, where applicable, as needed for comparison. Measurements can be taken to estimate, for example, possible height of the perpetrator, foot and or shoe size. Once the findings are noted, they are compared with known standards to make a final determination.

Adiantum aleuticum Western maidenhair

Adiantum Aleuticum Cultivars

Ault on Washington State's Olympic Peninsula. Farther south one of nature's most spectacular temperate fern displays is in Fern Canyon in northern California's Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. Trails from a visitor's center wander towards the Pacific Ocean with a flourishing finale in a narrow half-mile (0.8-km) stretch of a gorgeous gorge. Here flowing sheets of maidenhairs cascade down 50-ft. (15-m) plus walls impressing even the least fern inclined or informed visitor. Companion plants include big trees and huge specimens of Woodwardia fimbriata luxuriating in the coastal comfort of their optimal habitat. Look too for the Roosevelt elk that graze the beach at the canyon's outflow. Bring your camera.

Protein Growth Facilities on Board the ISS

For example, the X-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) is a multipurpose facility designed to provide and coordinate all elements of protein crystal growth experiments on board the ISS, including sample growth, monitoring, mounting, freezing, and X-ray diffraction. A module for the growth phase is designed to house vapor diffusion experiments. The visualization unit uses magnified still photographs of samples that have completed growth to determine whether the resulting crystals are worth preserving. The Crystal Preparation Prime Item (CPPI) is a robotic system that mounts the crystals on hair loops for cryopreservation or on hair loops inside a capillary, unfrozen. Finally, the X-ray Diffraction Module employs a low-power (24 W) X-ray source and has a maximum resolution of 1.1 A. The

Cardiac Involvement In Dm1 Pathology and mechanisms of cardiac death

Figure 36.1 The grip test is a quick and easy way to determine the presence of active myotonia. After contraction of the fist (A) the patient is unable to relax the muscles of the hand (B). Photographs courtesy of Dr Gabriella Silvestri, Unione Italiana Lotta alla Distrofia Muscolare, Sezione Lazio, Italy. Figure 36.1 The grip test is a quick and easy way to determine the presence of active myotonia. After contraction of the fist (A) the patient is unable to relax the muscles of the hand (B). Photographs courtesy of Dr Gabriella Silvestri, Unione Italiana Lotta alla Distrofia Muscolare, Sezione Lazio, Italy.

Medicolegal Considerations

Careful documentation in the medical record is crucial in domestic violence cases. Such documentation can assist the victim who seeks legal remedies such at temporary or permanent restraining orders, child custody, separation, or divorce. It is recommended that photographs of visible injuries be included. Be sure to obtain consent and to document the date and time of the photographs. A hand-drawn body map detailing areas of tenderness or hematomas should be included to document nonvisible injuries. Physicians for a Violence-free Society, which has developed materials to help physicians incorporate forensic documentation into their practices, can be contacted at 415-821-8209. Emergency physicians must be aware of their state's reporting requirements. Some states have mandatory reporting of known or suspected domestic violence others have mandatory arrest, in addition to mandatory reporting. If the police are called, either at the woman's request or because of a reporting requirement,...

Analysis of FISH Images and Mounting of Immunostaining and FISH Pictures

Select the best chromosomes for image analysis. In cases where the antibody staining survives FISH, from the digital camera attached to the microscope acquire three pictures for every selected chromosome with appropriate filter sets one for the antibody staining, one for the FISH signal, and one for DAPI staining. If the antibody staining does not survive FISH, image acquisition of immunostained chromosomes at marked slide coordinates will already have been done as described in Subheading 3.2., and at this stage of the experiment, separate acquisition of the FISH and DAPI images is performed on the same chromosomes.

Courtship and Marriage

Covenant (neke qiyar) is a small ceremony performed by a mullah at the groom's house. The mullah recites verses from the Qur'an, asks the couple to confess their faith, has the couple and the witnesses drink from a bowl of water (in which two coins have been placed), and then gives his blessing (Privratsky, 2001). A civil ceremony (ZAGS registratsiya) is held at a local administrative building or marriage hall. This brief ceremony, directed by a state official, ensures that the couple are legally married. After the ceremony, an entourage of young people travel in cars with wedding ribbons to nearby scenic locations and take numerous photographs.

Color Vision Theorieslaws

Ewald Hering, Leo Hurvich, and Dorothea Jameson, considers red-green as well as blue-yellow to be antagonistic processes. These two accounts have been reconciled now so that the trichromatic theory describes activity at the lower receptor level, and the opponent-process theory describes integration events at the higher level of neural organization. A current theory of color vision, the retinex theory, formulated by the American physicist sensory psychologist Edwin Herbert Land (19091991), maintains the existence of three separate visual systems ( retinexes ) where one is responsive primarily to long-wavelength light, one to moderate-wavelength light, and the third to short-wavelength light. Each system is represented as an analog to a black-and-white picture taken through a particular filter with each one producing maximum activity in response to red, green, and blue light for the long-, moderate-, and short-wavelength retinexes, respectively (cf., the Land effect -a vivid impression...

The Diencephalon 1 The Thalamus

Circuitry Motor Cortex

Figure 14 Base of the brain low power view of same brain shown in Fig. 5 to show the inferior surface of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata, together with other structures. From J. Nolte and J. B. Angevine, Jr., The Human Brain. In Photographs and Diagrams, 2nd ed., Mosby, St. Louis, 2000 (photograph by Biomedical Communications, The University of Arizona College of Medicine). Figure 14 Base of the brain low power view of same brain shown in Fig. 5 to show the inferior surface of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata, together with other structures. From J. Nolte and J. B. Angevine, Jr., The Human Brain. In Photographs and Diagrams, 2nd ed., Mosby, St. Louis, 2000 (photograph by Biomedical Communications, The University of Arizona College of Medicine).

Beef Quality Beef Quality Grading

The USDA Quality Grade is determined by considering the degree of marbling, as observed in the cut surface of the ribeye between the 12th and 13th ribs, in relation to the overall maturity of the carcass. Marbling scores are assigned to the carcass depending on the degree of intramuscular fat that is present in the cut surface of the ribeye. Marbling scores have been established by the LSD and are referenced in the form of photographs 1 (Fig. 1). The marbling scores are Abundant, Moderately Abundant, Slightly Abundant, Moderate, Modest, Small, Slight, Traces, and Practically Devoid. Mean percent chemical fat has been determined in the ribeye muscle as 10.42 , 8.56 , 7.34 , 5.97 , 4.99 , 3.43 , 2.48 , and 1.77 for marbling scores of Moderately Abundant, Slightly Abundant, Moderate, Modest, Small, Slight, Traces, and Practically Devoid, respectively.1-4-1 Before the marbling score is evaluated, the USDA has mandated a ten-minute (minimum) bloom period between the time that the carcass...

Tools To Help With Swine Behavior Management And Wellbeing Definitions

The beginning of a behavior experiment, an ethogram (a catalogue of behaviors, vocalizations, and odors issued by an animal) is developed for the species under study. Even though many dictionaries are available to assist with this process, behavior is extremely dynamic and difficult to capture using written information only and still photographs. Computer and video technology is progressing and future developments may allow totally objective measures for behavior to be collected.

EM In Situ Hybridization to Polytene Chromosomes

Biotin Labeled Probes

Cessful (24), perhaps because the antibodies conjugated to the gold particles penetrated poorly into the epoxy resin (25). This possibility is supported by our observation that the hybridization signal is differentially distributed along the chromosome thickness in pre-embedding in situ hybridization experiments. When DNA is detected in large condensed bands, gold particles are seen mainly on the chromosome surface in the first sections of a series (see Fig. 5D,E) when it is detected in the decompacted regions, such as puffs or interbands, the gold label is more or less evenly distributed along the chromosome thickness and it is seen in all of the serial sections (see Fig. 5C,F,G). Fine mapping of DNA probes with respect to chromosome banding pattern is facilitated when photographs obtained by both EM in situ hybridization and the conventional

The Female Rape Examination

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION48,1 H The physical exam should be performed thoroughly and compassionately. A female chaperone should be present if the examining physician is a man. Document a general medical examination, including vital signs and level of consciousness. Bruises, lacerations, or other signs of trauma should be described in detail a body map may be useful. As many as 290 percent of rape survivors will have nongenital injuries. - H.2,13 The examiner should carefully inspect the victim's face, oral cavity, neck, breasts, wrist, thighs, and buttocks. Areas of tenderness should also be recorded. A pelvic examination should be performed, noting any vaginal discharge or genital lacerations or abrasions. Toluidine blue can be used to detect small vulvar lacerations. 4 Lacerations expose the deeper dermis, containing nuclei that absorb this stain. Prior to inserting the speculum, the dye is applied to the posterior fourchette with gauze and wiped away with lubricating jelly. A linear...

Reliability And Performance

The initial performance standards from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s were built around a three-ply foil laminate, semiautomated packaging procedures, and the ability to resist military distribution abuse (considered the most rigorous). Lampi et al. (27) discuss these in detail. In summary, postretort pouch seals had to exhibit complete fusion, meet an internal pressure level of 20 psig for a 30-s hold time, meet a tensile strength of 12 lb in for a 1 2-in sample width, and show no visual aberrations. Photographs of acceptable and nonacceptable seals were published as guides for visual inspection. Residual gases were initially kept at 5 cm3 or less. An inspection plan suitable for monitoring production is shown and discussed by Lampi (12).

Physical Examination

In preadolescents and adolescents, assessment of sexual maturation (usually following the Tanner staging) is an important component of the physical examination, although it is not always feasible due to cultural and practical reasons. Alternatively, more limited information may be obtained in girls by self-reported menarcheal status. Self-assessment of Tanner stage by comparison with photographs is another useful alternative, but use of these photographs with children may not be acceptable in some communities.

Verbal Semantic Memory

Their ability to identify living things, such an elephant or a flower, even though they are still capable of identifying nonliving things, such as tools. One interpretation of this result is that the brain's organization of semantic memory is, in part, organized by broad categories. To test whether this is so in normal adults as well as brain-injured adults, one study used PET to examine what areas of the brain are active during the retrieval of three different semantic categories. Participants were given several scans during each of which they were asked to name photographs of either famous people, animals, or tools. As predicted, different brain activations resulted from naming each kind of stimulus. Naming famous people produced activity in the most anterior part of the temporal cortex, called the temporal pole. Naming animals produced activity in a more posterior area of the temporal cortex in inferior and middle temporal gyri. Naming tools showed activity in an even more...

Sensitivity to Number per se

Although the experimental evidence with human infants is less extensive than that with animals, the evidence does suggest that infants have similar abilities. Many habituation studies have found that infants (from a few days old to over 1 year of age, depending on the study) can discriminate number when repeatedly presented with ( habituated to'') displays containing a given number of items, infants' interest will decrease and their looking time at each display will drop. They will subsequently look longer at a display containing a new number of items than at a new display containing the same, habituated number of items. In a study by Prentice Starkey, Elizabeth Spelke, and Rochel Gelman, for example, 7-month-old infants were habituated to visual displays of either two or three randomly arranged objects. The displays were constructed of photographs of various household objects that were different in each picture, for example, one picture might consist of an orange and a glove and the...

Bearable Electrical Aversion in Treatment of Homosexuality

In an alternative development in 1964, Thorpe and colleagues argued that as photographs symbolized the behaviors to be treated with aversive therapy, words might be equally effective symbols and their use would avoid the necessity of obtaining suitable photographs. They also noted that in sessions of aversive therapy when subjects recognized by a signal that administration of unpleasant stimuli had finished they experienced great relief. They decided to incorporate this relief into the treatment of homosexuality in men that they had developed, which they termed aversion-relief therapy. With In 1969 Bancroft reported the use in 10 homosexual men of electric shock contingent on their showing a distinguishable penile circumference response to photographs of males. Up to four further shocks were given at 15-second intervals unless penile circumference decrease occurred. At the time it had not been recognized that as shown by McConaghy in 1974 a percentage of men in response to stimuli...

Affect Mood and Psychological Functioning

The first involves matching a target face with one of six faces. The target stimulus is always identical to the correct answer. The second part of the task involves choosing the three photographs, out of the array of six, that contain the same face as the target photograph. Increasing use of camera angle and shadow contribute to the progressive difficulty of the task.

Nursing Ethics Education in the United States

The ethics of end-of-life care and pain management have also received much attention since the mid-1990s. Reviews of standard nursing texts found very little content related to pain management, end-of-life care, or the ethical issues at the end of life (Ferrell et al.). Concern over these shortcomings was mobilized into national projects to develop resources for teaching nurses the clinical skills needed for pain and symptom management as well as an understanding of the myriad ethical issues that arise in the provision of end-of-life care. The End-of-Life Nursing Education Collaboration Project (ELNEC) developed a standardized curriculum on end-of-life care and provided train-the-trainer programs for nursing school faculty, continuing education providers, and state boards of nursing across the country (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 1996). The Toolkit for Nursing Excellence at End-of-Life Transitions (TNEEL) was provided free of charge to all nursing schools (Wells et...

Birth Related Hemorrhages

Birth-related conjunctival hemorrhages may be documented in delivery or neonatal medical notes charts, or they may be seen on family photographs of a newborn child. Note, however, that their absence may be the result of sampling problems and may not exclude birth trauma (I once looked through more than 60 family photographs of one child to find the single photograph that showed a conjunctival hemorrhage that I had seen microscopically). Birth-related retinal hemorrhages are extremely common but usually are not seen or documented because nobody looks for them. They are not seen on family photographs. The RetCam (a wide-angle contact eye fundus camera) was used in a prospective study (revised manuscript submitted to J American Association Pediatric Opthalmology and Strabismus Hughes et al. Incidence, distribution and duration of birth-related retinal hemorrhages a prospective study. ) of retinal hemorrhages in neonates (in our hands RetCam is safe and very easy to use in unsedated...

Imitation of Meaningless Gestures

Defective imitation of meaningless gestures affects not only the translation of gestures from a model to the patient's own body but also translation to other human bodies. Patients who commit errors when imitating gestures also commit errors when asked to replicate a gesture on a mannikin or to select a gesture from an array of photographs showing gestures performed by different persons and shown at different angles.

Macroscopic Examination and Recording of Pathologic Findings

It is important that you develop a careful systematic approach to the examination of the eye, regarding it almost as a mini-autopsy in its own right. This approach is necessary because it is easy to overlook important diagnostic features in many different parts of the eye, and because dissection and processing of the eye rarely leave enough tissue for meaningful reexamination. For these reasons, it is vitally important to record the examination findings correctly, ideally supplementing written findings with photographs of important features.

Confidence And Appearance Stereotypes

Self-perception theory asserts that we know our own attributes in the same way that we know about the attributes of others. If that is the case, then stereotypes about appearance that affect our judgments of others should affect our judgments of ourselves as well. Certainly stereotypes are powerful determinants of our judgments of others. For example, more attractive people are routinely judged to be smarter and more humorous and to have performed better at a variety of tasks (Dion, Berscheid, & Walster, 1972). Tall people are more likely to be seen as leaders conversely, people who have achieved leadership positions are judged to be taller than they actually are (Jackson & Ervin, 1992 Montepare, 1995 Wilson, 1968). Unfortunately for experimental design purposes, most stereotypical aspects of appearance, such as attractiveness or height, are not easily manipulated. Fortunately, one is. This is the stereotype that people who wear glasses are more intelligent. To...

Dietary Intake Measurements

Of the individual methods weighed records, estimated food records, 24-h recalls (24-h), and dietary histories are more intensive. The quantity of food consumed may be weighed directly or estimated using household measures such as cups and spoons, photographs, standard units, or average portions (see Table 2). For all methods the amount consumed can be measured or described either including or excluding wastage material usually discarded during food preparation, e.g., outer leaves and peel from vegetables or bones from cuts of meat.

The Holocaust in Bioethical Discourse

A best-selling book in the animal rights movement called Eternal Treblinka (Patterson) argues that there are many parallels between animal exploitation and the Nazi exploitation of people and points out that the slaughterhouse was the model for the death camps. In 2003 People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) mounted a graphic campaign and exhibit called Holocaust on Your Plate, which placed 60-square-foot panels displaying gruesome scenes from Nazi death camps side by side with disturbing photographs from factory farms and slaughterhouses. One exhibit shows a starving man in a concentration camp next to a starving cow. The campaign, which highlighted medical research using animals along with other forms of animal exploitation, used the slogan To animals, all people are Nazis (Specter). Jewish leaders, as well as many others, objected strongly to the exhibition.

Shared Manifold Hypothesis

Determines physical development and molds behavior. In order to measure physique, Sheldon devised a photographic technique using pictures of the individual's front, side, and rear in standard poses. This procedure is called the somatotype performance test. After examining and judging about 4,000 of these photographs, Sheldon and his associates concluded that there are three primary dimensions or components concerning the measurement and assessment of the physical structure of the human body endomorphy - a body that appears to be soft and spherical mesomorphy - a body that appears to be hard, rectangular, and muscular and ectomorphy - a body that appears to be linear, thin, and fragile. All participants in Sheldon's photographs could be assigned a score of from one to seven for each of the three components and, with further an-thropometric measurements, a complete description of the somatotyping process of individuals was possible. According to Sheldon, the idea of somatotype is an...

Larval Adhesive Organs

Larval adhesive organs of crinoids and asteroids. SEM photographs of the dolio-laria larva of Antedon bifida (A) and of its anterior adhesive pit (B) (from Lahaye 1987), and of the brachiolaria larva of Asterias rubens (C) (original). AD Adhesive disc AdP adhesive pit AP apical papilla AT apical tuft CC ciliary cap LBA lateral brachiolar arm LP lateral papilla M mouth MBA median brachiolar arm PL preoral lobe V vestibule 1-4 ciliary bands Fig. 3A-C. Larval adhesive organs of crinoids and asteroids. SEM photographs of the dolio-laria larva of Antedon bifida (A) and of its anterior adhesive pit (B) (from Lahaye 1987), and of the brachiolaria larva of Asterias rubens (C) (original). AD Adhesive disc AdP adhesive pit AP apical papilla AT apical tuft CC ciliary cap LBA lateral brachiolar arm LP lateral papilla M mouth MBA median brachiolar arm PL preoral lobe V vestibule 1-4 ciliary bands

Clinical features

Photographs of a patient with AIDS (a) shows perineal scarring after recurrent peri-anal infections and (b) a mouth ulcer on the hard palate, probably due to an opportunistic viral infection. Figure 11.13. Photographs of a patient with AIDS (a) shows perineal scarring after recurrent peri-anal infections and (b) a mouth ulcer on the hard palate, probably due to an opportunistic viral infection.

Cultured Mouse Cells Injected with Als Dna

The DNA segment coding for a full-length SOD1 with without mutations and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into an expression vector. The resultant plasmid carried wild-type, Ala4Thr (substitution of alanine at position 4 by threonine A4T) and 2 base-pair deletions in the 126th codon (d126p) mutations. Mutant A4T and d126p, as well as wild-type, SOD1 were expressed in mouse neuroblastome cell, Neuro2a. A4T and d126p mutations were identified in FALS cases 14,15 . As a control sample, the Neuro2a cells injected with only GFP were investigated as well as those injected with SOD1. Figure 7.2 shows the fluorescent microscopic photographs of the cells in which the SOD1 gene were expressed.

External Examination

Various methods of documentation are used to provide an effective record. Narrative descriptions can be too lengthy. If injuries are not described in continuity, then the report is difficult to follow. Word descriptions are enhanced by use of body diagrams ( a picture is worth a thousand words 59 ). A diagram also provides an overall impression of the extent of injuries, emphasizing their severity (20). Diagrams help in the interpretation of photographs. Diagrams can be used as demonstrative evidence in legal proceedings instead of photographic images that may be too graphic for jurors (20,59). Photographic images assist investigators, other experts, and the court in understanding the findings in a case (2,20,59). Although images are not part of the pathologist's report, they do provide a visual record that assists in the preparation of the report (20,59). Photographic images are not a substitute for a carefully prepared, accurate report. A pathologist must either take or supervise...


Leif Zerkin, editor of the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, came up with recommendations for additional reading and some good cartoons. Ken and Maria Robbins provided photographs, food, and information. Dody Fugate of the University of Arizona gave us outstanding photographic service.

Defining Child Abuse

(M)others in many cultures use genital manipulation to soothe and pleasure infants. Some cultures prescribe the deflowering of pubertal girls by an adult male or by the father (Goodwin, p. 33). Exotic cultural differences may be mirrored by different beliefs in our own culture. Some parents may sleep with their children, bathe with them, or take pictures of the children naked on the beach. In some jurisdictions, these activities may be defined as illegal or morally inappropriate.

Colorimetric Sensors

There is emerging interest in sensitive colorimetric biosensor methods that do not require specialized instruments for signal detection. Nanoparticles, nanovesicles, and optical thin film have been used to transduce complementary hybridization into a color change. Aggregation of probe-labeled nanoparticles in the presence of complementary target is associated with a color shift that can be monitored using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. This system was coupled in an array format with a chemoresponsive diffraction grating detector to show realtime detection of a synthesized 27-mer DNA target. The experimental detection limit was 0.8 fmol (1 pM in 800 mL), and an extrapolated detection limit of 33 attomol was calculated. 14 In a system using a dye-encapsulated nanovesicle label, Baeumner and colleagues 15 showed that sandwich hybridization in solution could be detected simply and with high sensitivity. Target DNA, capture probe, and labeled probe were mixed for 20 min, sampled with a...

Visual Appraisal

Subjective visual assessment of live animals or their carcasses is an inexpensive and rapid technique that is often used to supplement linear measurements. Distinguishing between muscling and fatness is difficult. Therefore, visual assessment of muscling is more effective within a narrow range of fatness, particularly when fat levels are low. However, visual prediction is difficult to standardize. Comparative photographs that subjectively depict degrees of muscling and fatness are effective standards that can be used to classify extremes in composition, especially for carcasses. Nevertheless, for the sake of accuracy visual appraisal is not recommended. 1

Nutrient Capture

Figure 2 Some fruit bodies of saprotrophic basidiomycota, illustrating a range of sizes and resources (a) the solitary Macrolepiota rhacodes with a coin size marker (20 mm diameter) (b) a fruit body of Marasmius setosus with the same coin size marker (c) even smaller Marasmius specimen on the petiole of a beech cupule (d) Collybia peronata on a pine cone (e) the decidedly caespitose Psathyrella multipedata (f) Terence Ingold posing with Fomes fomentarius on a beech tree in Knole Park, Sevenoaks, Kent, 1969 (see Ingold, 2002). Photographs (a)-(e) by David Moore of specimens collected by members of the mid-yorkshire fungus group at Harlow Carr Gardens. (See Colour Section)

Theories of masking

Integrative masking is thought to involve the summation of the neural signal of the target and mask due to the limited temporal resolution of processing channels. The resulting stimulus signal is a composite, much like two photographs exposed on the same emulsion. In this type of masking (Turvey, 1973) (a) The stimulus that dominates the conscious percept is the stimulus with the highest energy (where energy is approximately equivalent to the product of the duration and luminance of the display). If masking is only partial, the subjective appearance of the display is of a bold stimulus superimposed over a faint ghost stimulus. (b) The temporal order of the two stimuli is relatively unimportant the most energetic stimulus masks the other, regardless of whether it comes first (forward masking) or second (backward masking). (c) Masking is obtained even from light flashes or random patterns of dots (noise masks). (d) Masking is relatively ineffective if the two stimuli are presented...

Fetal Eyes

Gilliland and Folberg25 described a technique for examining the eyes of children in suspected child abuse by removing the anterior segment of the eye (cornea, anterior chamber, iris, lens, and pars plicata of the ciliary body) in the coronal plane. The aim was to expose any retinal hemorrhages in these children so that photographs would show the fundus (to a jury) as it would be seen in life by an ophthalmologist. This technique is fraught with potential dangers for all but experienced ophthalmic pathologists. However, I still do not use this method because it destroys the continuity between anterior and posterior segment findings in nonaccidental blunt traumatic injury.

Food Soils

Microbial soils cannot generally be observed by the eye but require microscopic examination. Bacterial attachment to surfaces is well documented (7-9), and the influence of bacterial growth on surfaces, termed biofilms, in the food industry has been discussed (10,11). Examination of stainless steel coupons attached to production lines, by epifluorescent microscopy, has been used to assess microbial levels in a range of food soils (12). An example of a heavy biofilm buildup over 16 h is shown in Figure 1 for a baked bean soil. After 12 h or so, this biofilm appeared to be of a brown vegetable appearance, but the photographs show clearly that it is bacterial in nature. A thorough understanding of a soil's characteristics is therefore required to ensure a successful and economic sanitation program.


The expert ophthalmic pathologist is often presented with the eyes in fixative solution but ideally should examine the face and eyelids before the eyes are removed for distribution of postmortem lividity, signs of head and eye trauma, and hemorrhages (including petechial hemorrhages of the face and conjunctiva). The pathologist removing the eyes should obtain extensive high-quality photographs of the head, neck, face, and eyes before they are removed, preferably according to a protocol that ensures no important views are missed (see Practice Points). You should remove the eyes with the orbital contents I use an anterior dissection combined with dissection via the roof of the orbit (see The Intact Eye and Orbital Contents (Posterior Approach) above). The fixed eyes should be examined in detail using a dissecting microscope, taking high-quality color photographs of any significant findings, both at low power to indicate context and at sufficiently high magnification to show the...

Fluorescence Filters

The choice of filters for the fluorescence microscope can affect the ability to detect low-level signals present in fixed cells or tissue sections. Use green (rather than Texas Red TR , Cy3, Cy5, and so on) fluorescence on targets that are small or of low abundance in a tissue sections or fixed cells. FITC-tyramide is best viewed through an FITC TRITC (tertamethylrhodamine isothiocyanate) or FITC TR filter (see Note 2). For instance, nascent RNA signals are small, but highly recognizable by eye both on tissue sections and in single cells. We also suggest the use of narrow-bandpass filters such as the Speicher filter set from Chroma Technology. Filter sets should be purchased with the detector(s) in mind human eye, black and white or color film (rarely used now), color digital camera, high-sensitivity monochrome digital camera, and or confocal microscope. Single-band filter sets are best for specificity wide-bandpass filter sets are excellent for looking at several colors by eye or...


Infants subjected to physical child abuse may sustain serious head injuries from direct trauma, violent shaking, burns, bites and other mechanisms. These injuries produces a range of physical findings on the head and face and in the mouth, but sometimes the absence of external marks is important to record (e.g., head injury resulting from violent shaking alone). Our recent practice in fatally injured infants indicates physically abused children may have additional (or isolated) direct eye trauma (e.g., poking in the eyes). In these groups of children, good-quality photographs of any skin bruises are vital, but it is also very important to photograph the skin (particularly the eyelids) to record when bruising is absent. In practice, however, it soon became clear that there were serious inadequacies in the autopsy photographs being taken by various agencies around the country. Therefore we conducted a retrospective study of all the photographic evidence that we had received over the...

Methods of Analysis

Once cleaned, all bones should be observed macroscopically and under low-power magnification and with oblique lighting (9,10). Defects that may have been obscured by decomposing flesh or moisture are often revealed at this time. Low-power magnification and lighting techniques are particularly important in revealing sharp force injuries, incomplete fractures, and pathological fractures. Photo documentation with and without a scale is essential to show both the overall location and the close-up views of such defects, following the basic protocol set forth for other forensic disciplines (11). Photographs should be taken at a 90 angle to the surface of the bone to minimize distortion. Close-up views are linked to the overall photos in which scales and labels are included. In addition, all bone abnormalities should be charted with notations of length and characteristics.

Risk Factors

Of all the above-mentioned risk factors for melanoma, nevi (especially atypical) have by far the greatest clinical implication. Also apparent as precursor lesions both in sporadic and familial melanoma, many groups have reported the co-occurrence of a nevus phenotype with familial melanoma. Throughout the years familial melanoma has been referred to by many different names, which may reflect the difficulty to reach consensus on defining the associated nevus phenotype B-K mole syndrome (initials of described families) dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS), familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome, and atypical mole syndrome (AMS). Each of these definitions includes atypical nevi as the most predominant feature of the phenotype. Atypical nevi are defined as nevi that have a size of 5 mm or larger, have a flat component, and fulfill at least two of the following three criteria 1) variegated pigmentation, 2) ill-defined border, and 3) irregular shape. The photographs in Fig. 1...

Dna identification

Photographs and traditional fingerprints have, of course, also been taken, collected, and used for all these same purposes in the past. But unlike photography and manual fingerprinting, collecting individually identifying DNA patterns (iDNAfication) does involve taking bits of people's bodies from them nucleated cells and their complements of DNA molecules. For those concerned about the ethical and legal status of body tissues and an individual's ability to control what happens to him or her through use of that tissue, this corporeal side of iDNAfication raises an interesting challenge. Clearly, questions of personal privacy are involved. But unlike most other disputes over body tissues, the issues here are not primarily matters of personal sovereignty. For example, unlike involuntary sterilization or forced surgeries, the central concern with mandatory iDNAfication does not seem to be the violation of a person's bodily integrity. Compared with the other infringements of personal...


The disparity between the results of Turekian et al. (1975) and those from shallow water are not as great as originally thought. For example, the growth rates of some deep-sea bivalve species are comparable to those of shallow-water bivalves (Gage, 1991). Following the work of Turekian et al. (1975), the growth rates of deep-sea benthic organisms have been estimated by other indirect methods. If the assumptions made are correct, the growth rates of deep-sea invertebrates are lower than, but not markedly different from, growth rates of shallow-water species (Gage, 1991). Direct measurements from time-lapse photographs have shown that the growth of a deep-sea hard-bottom barnacle was almost as rapid as that of similar, shallow-water barnacles (Lampitt, 1990) and that the volume of three xenophyophore individuals increased by a factor of 310 in 8 months during these 8 months, periods of rapid growth were interspersed with periods of no growth (Gooday et al., 1993) (Fig. 2.23)....

Surgical technique

At a second procedure some months later after tissue expansion in the clinic, the infra-mammary fold is recreated on each breast and the tissue expander replaced with permanent implants. This second procedure affords the best chance to adjust the aesthetic quality of the breast reconstructions such that, ideally, the woman will look as near-normal as possible, not only when wearing a bra but also when undressed. Pre- and postoperative photographs are mandatory.

Nemesis or Shiva

Appropriate to name the star after Shiva, a Hindu deity associated, like Nemesis, with destruction but also with rebirth. Intrigued by this image, a few years ago I asked Jeanine Schotsmans, a curator at the Brussels museum, to lend me one of her superb photographs of a Shiva sculpted on the walls of the Temple of Ajanta in India, in the very lava that I believe may have been at least partly responsible for the massacre of the dinosaurs (Fig. 7.3). I suggested to the editors of Nature that they should put this photograph on the cover of the issue in which our first argon datings of the traps were published.17 An accompanying caption (with a wink to Stephen Gould) was unfortunately omitted by the journal's editors. A good many readers of Nature must have wondered what this divinity was doing on the cover of their magazine.


Marbling, or intramuscular fat, is defined as flecks of fat found within the muscle that relate positively to consumer evaluations of juiciness, tenderness, and flavor. 2 Marbling significantly improves overall consumer satisfaction ratings. 3 Marbling is visually determined by evaluating the amount of flecks within the surface of the ribeye muscle where the carcass is split between the 12th and 13th ribs. 4 There are ten degrees of marbling that can be assigned to the carcass, including Very Abundant, Abundant, Moderately Abundant, Slightly Abundant, Moderate, Modest, Small, Slight, Traces, and Practically Devoid, with Very Abundant being the highest degree of marbling and Practically Devoid being the lowest degree. 4 Photographs of these marbling degrees, published by the National Cattlemen's Beef Association, serve as the standard used by the USDA for visual appraisal of marbling scores (Fig. 1).

Photo Credits

Unless noted below or within its caption, the illustrations and tables featured in Genetics were developed by Richard Robinson, and rendered by GGS Information Services. The photographs appearing in the text were reproduced by permission of the following sources Accelerated Aging Progeria (p. 2), Photo courtesy of The Progeria Research Foundation, Inc. and the Barnett Family Aging and Life Span (p. 8), Fisher, Leonard Everett, Mr. Agricultural Biotechnology (p. 10), Keren Su Corbis Alzheimer's Disease (p. 15), AP Wide World Photos Antibiotic Resistance (p. 27), Hank Morgan Science Photo Library, Photo Researchers, Inc. Apoptosis (p. 32 ), Microworks Phototake Arabidopsis thaliana (p. 34), Steinmark Custom Medical Stock Photo Archaea (p. 38), Eurelios Phototake Behavior (p. 47), Norbert Schafer Corbis Bioinformatics (p. 53), T. Bannor Custom Medical Stock Photo Bioremediation (p. 60), Merjenburgh Greenpeace Bioremediation (p. 61), AP Wide World Photos Biotechnology and Genetic...


In recent years, concern has been raised about the morality of killing animals for this collecting of specimens. In response to this concern, and as a consequence of space limitations in museums, the labor intensity of caring for collections, and declining populations in the wild, collecting has become far more conservative. In addition, alternatives to collecting in certain situations are being discussed. These include photographs of animals to document distributions of easily identifiable animals, and blood and or tissue samples to access genetic information.

Medical Records

When an injury becomes the subject of a legal proceeding, the medical record documenting that injury and its subsequent treatment becomes a central part of the court deliberations, which may include obtaining testimony from the physician that created that record. The defendant or the accused is entitled to cross-examine that physician to establish or refute the validity of the medical information presented to the court. Physicians must recognize the legal responsibility that society places on them and be prepared to provide competent, professional testimony when required. The proper documentation of injuries includes the description of the details previously specified under wound pattern. The use of anatomic diagrams, together with photographs, makes the record more representative of the injuries as a physician saw them and more understandable by the lay members of a court. These items (charts, diagrams, and cameras) should be essential equipment in an ED, and photographs should...


Trichomanes reniforme (kidney-shaped) is one of Mother Nature's gifts of elegance to New Zealand where it is an endemic filmy fern and as such only one cell thick. But what a filmy fern it is. The long-creeping rhizomes produce brilliant green, round to kidney-shaped, 3-in. (7.5-cm), translucent garlands of fronds. Sori held in distinctive tubular indusia stand shoulder to shoulder trimming the pinnae margins. Often in the company of native orchids, the species forms thick curtains on trees and floors of damp forests, and carpets rocks throughout the country. It seems tolerant of most every habitat except, regrettably, those of cultivated gardens. It is a must see for fern lovers traveling to New Zealand. Attempts at cultivation are attended with hopeful expectations, but, as with most filmy ferns, usually result in short-lived displays of struggling and straggling bits and pieces of the desired fern. Give it instead the attention of your camera along with your respectful admiration.

Ceneiic DislANCt

Fixation is not very satisfactory. Gel contract and whiten, weak bands may be lost, and it is difficult to store large numbers of fixed gels. Photographing the stained gel to produce a permanent record is the method of choice. Photographing gels with a digital camera and storing the resulting images on a computer is a very useful way of cataloguing large numbers of gels.

Colony morphology

Schematic Diagram Circular Colony

When the evolution of one single colony grown on an agar plate is monitored, some typical morphological changes can be observed. For colonies of Aerobacter (Klebsiella) aerogenes, Cooper et al. (1970) made colony drawings from the negatives of photographs with the aid of an enlarger magnifying 10 to 15 times. lnitially, nutrient supply is sufficient for all the cells in the colony, resulting in a young circular colony. As the colony ages, the nutrient concentration in the agar beneath the colony is depleting, resulting in a competition for nutrients by the cells at the periphery of the evolving colony. Any outgrowth of cells in the colony perimeter will be advantageous with respect to the other cells in the colony. Therefore, such inequality in nutrient uptake will invoke an exaggerate uneven frontal growth of the bacterial colony resulting in a more and more irregular perimeter which is a characteristic of older colonies growing in nutrient limited conditions. Stirring the medium...

Harts tongue ferns

Worldwide the distribution is extensive and includes Europe, Asia, North Africa, the Middle East, and North America. Universally these ferns are primarily associated with limestone rocks and substrates. The rare North American native, Phyllitis scolopendrium var. americana, grows almost exclusively in shaded quarries and limestone-rich habitats frequently in hardwood forests. Alert visitors to Europe and Britain will find their native species, and an occasional variation, in mortared rubble on antiquities, faces of buildings, and in chinks on roadside walls (and can amuse the locals by taking close-up photographs of their flora ). Garden specimens do acclimate in circumneutral soil as well but appreciate an amendment of ground oyster or eggshells, concrete pebbles, limestone chips, or other additives that offer a steady and slow release of lime. Powdered supplements of dolomite or lawn sweeteners are not recommended. However, fellow enthusiasts give an endorsement to pelleted...


Initial contact was in June 1998 by the case detective, at which time an evaluation of the questioned shoes was performed. There appeared to be sufficient quality and quantity of the footwear for podiatric medical evaluation to continue. The suspects were taken into custody and standards were collected including photographs, inked bare footprints with foot outlines, impressible foam foot impressions that were cast with dental stone to create positive molds of the feet, and foot measurements. Biomechanical and structural problems were observed at this time. The laboratory personnel produced examination quality photographs as requested, including photographically enhanced images of the sock liners of the questioned footwear. Eleven pairs of shoes were examined. The questioned shoes were a brand name canvas off-court casual sneaker size 5.5, and a designer athletic type shoe with a thick outsole, the left shoe measuring 5.0 and the right shoe measuring 5.5. Other shoes included two pairs...

Cynthia R Johnson

Antecedent The preceding factor or stimulus that may cue the occurrence of the observable behaviors (an antecedent for tantrums in young children is being told no ). applied behavior analysis Field of inquiry that studies variables influencing observable behaviors by use of a systematic experimental design. This term is oftentimes used interchangeably with behavior therapy and behavior modification. augmentative communication system An alternative communication designed for those impaired in verbal communication. Systems may vary from simple photographs, to picture symbols, to computerized devices programmed specifically for an individual. consequence The event or stimulus, occurring after a behavior, that influences the future likelihood of the behavior. A consequence may be a reinforcer (thus increase the likelihood of the behavior to occur) or a punisher (decrease the likelihood of the behavior). extinction Commonly called systematic ignoring a behavior procedure by which...

Final Discussion

UFrith I am talking about something much more concrete. Ralph Adolphs has done this. He showed people a set of 48 photographs of totally unknown faces, and they could sort them into trustworthy and non-trustworthy categories. Yet there was no objective reason for this. U Frith People do tend to agree on which faces are trustworthy, but as far as I know no one has looked at the link between these opinions and actual trustworthiness. I am just saying that we are prepared to make a quick judgement, without objective evidence, on some weak signals of black and white photographs of just a face, and we agree on who is who.

Plastic Surgery

These studies 75 of the parents and nearly all of the surgeons were very satisfied with the results (Lemperle and Radu, 1980 Olbrisch, 1982). However, later studies began to include peers and teacher s(Arndt 1986). Subjects were shown a mixed series of photographs of children with Down syndrome. The photographs were in random order and included children both before and after plastic surgery. Subjects were asked to judge the appearance of the children in the photographs with respect to characteristics of Down syndrome, whether the subject would choose the person as a friend, and other subjective impressions. The subjects of these studies displayed no preference for the photographs of children who had had plastic surgery, in fact, the postsurgery photographs were found to be less attractive. In addition, there has been no evidence that children who have undergone plastic surgery have achieved greater skills, integration, or happiness than those without surgery.


Laboratory Technician (p. 2), Mark Tade Getty Images Maize (p. 9), Courtesy of Agricultural Research Service USDA Marker Systems (p. 16), Custom Medical Stock Photo Mass Spectrometry (p. 19), Ian Hodgson Rueters New Media McClintock, Barbara (p. 21), AP Wide World Photos McKusick, Victor (p. 23), The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Mendel, Gregor (p. 30), Archive Photos, Inc. Metabolic Disease (p. 38), AP Wide World Photos Mitochondrial Diseases (p. 53), Courtesy of Dr. Richard Haas University of California, San Diego, Department of Neurosciences Mitosis (p. 58), J. L. Carson Custom Medical Stock Photo Model Organisms (p. 61), Frank Lane Picture Agency Corbis Molecular Anthropology (p. 66), John Reader, Science Photo Library PhotoResearchers, Inc. Molecular Biologist (p. 71), AP Wide World Photos Morgan, Thomas Hunt (p. 73), Bettmann Corbis Mosaicism (p. 78), Courtesy of Carolyn Brown Department of Medical Genetics of University of British...


Cameras have also been important in documenting the behavior of deep-sea megafauna, and in the discovery of rates of some deep-sea processes. For these purposes, cameras are mounted in frames (vertically or obliquely) and left for times ranging from hours to months, taking photographs at preset intervals (Paul et al., 1978). At the appropriate time, ballast weights are released, and the buoyant instrument package rises to the surface for recovery. This free-vehicle approach (Rowe and Sibuet, 1983) has been used, for example, to document the date of appearance of phytodetritus on the seafloor (Lampitt, 1985), the rates of mound-building by an echiurid (Smith et al., 1986), and megafaunal activity rates (Smith et al., 1993). Stationary cameras with bait placed in the field of view have been crucial to the discovery and study of food-parcel-attending species in the deep sea (Hessler et al., 1972).

Semantic Memory

Provided insight into the circumstances in which the very remote memories are stronger. One technique is to present photographs of the faces of people who were famous in different past time periods. On the whole, such studies support the clinical impression, with famous people from the distant past more likely to be remembered, but there is an overall impairment. People with AD tend to do better if asked to say whether a face represents a famous person rather than to name the person or provide the identity this finding has been taken to indicate that the primary problem is a loss of stored semantic information about the person who is represented rather than difficulties in accessing the name. A second technique consists of to showing pictorially famous scenes and asking the person to recall information about the event. Again, pictures of events in the distant past tend to produce fewer memories in AD.

Gse In The Brain

Golgi Nissl Weigert

Figure 7 Lateral (top) and medial (bottom) aspects of brain, showing major fissures and lobes (except central lobe see Fig. 4, 9 months) and principal regions of the brain stem. From J. Nolte and J. B. Angevine, Jr., The Human Brain. In Photographs and Diagrams, 2nd ed., Mosby, St. Louis, 2000 (photograph by Biomedical Communications, The University of Arizona College of Medicine). Figure 7 Lateral (top) and medial (bottom) aspects of brain, showing major fissures and lobes (except central lobe see Fig. 4, 9 months) and principal regions of the brain stem. From J. Nolte and J. B. Angevine, Jr., The Human Brain. In Photographs and Diagrams, 2nd ed., Mosby, St. Louis, 2000 (photograph by Biomedical Communications, The University of Arizona College of Medicine).


Amygdala Nuclei And Connections

Figure 2 Photographs of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex (EC) of a macaque monkey, stained for acetylcholinesterase (left) and cells (Nissl method) (right). Note the component nuclei of the amygdala, including the basal nucleus (B), lateral nucleus (L), accessory basal nucleus (AB), central nucleus (Ce), and medial nucleus (Me). Also note the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), ventral to the anterior commissure (AC), the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the optic chiasm (OC), and the third ventricle (III). Figure 2 Photographs of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex (EC) of a macaque monkey, stained for acetylcholinesterase (left) and cells (Nissl method) (right). Note the component nuclei of the amygdala, including the basal nucleus (B), lateral nucleus (L), accessory basal nucleus (AB), central nucleus (Ce), and medial nucleus (Me). Also note the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), ventral to the anterior commissure (AC), the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the optic chiasm...

Spaceflight History

One of the following V-2 experiments used a mouse as the subject and no attempt was made to record heart action or breathing. Unlike the monkeys, the mouse was not even anesthetized because the purpose of the experiment was to record the conscious reactions of an animal to changing gravity conditions. For this purpose, the mouse capsule was equipped with a camera system to photograph the mouse at fixed intervals. Again, the recovery system failed and the mouse did not survive the impact. But the photographs came through successfully and showed that the mouse retained normal muscular coordination throughout the very brief period of microgravity, even though he no longer had a preference for any particular direction, and was as much at ease when inverted as when upright relative to the control starting position (Dempsey 1985).

Optic Aphasia

Patients are also not particularly sensitive to the visual quality of the stimulus and performance is approximately equivalent for object, photographs, and line drawings, unlike the case for associative agnosic patients. Another important distinction concerns the error types. The errors made by patients with optic aphasia are usually semantic in nature and hardly ever visual, whereas in associative agnosia the errors are primarily visual. One of the best studied patients by Lhermitte and Beauvois, Jules F., when shown a picture of a boot correctly gestured pulling on a boot but called it a hat. Optic aphasia patients also appear to make many perseverative errors, reproducing the error response from previous trials and sometimes producing conduites d'approache'' or progressive approximation to the target.

Digital Cameras For Beginners

Digital Cameras For Beginners

Although we usually tend to think of the digital camera as the best thing since sliced bread, there are both pros and cons with its use. Nothing is available on the market that does not have both a good and a bad side, but the key is to weigh the good against the bad in order to come up with the best of both worlds.

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