Neuronneuralnerve Theory

The neuron (or neurone, nerve cell) is the basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system and consists of three main parts a cell body (soma) that contains the nucleus, an axon, and one or more dendrites. A distinction is made between the terms neuron and nerve where a neuron is a single cell consisting of three parts (one of which is an axon), whereas a nerve is a bundle of many neural axons cf., Waller's law - formulated by the English physician physiologist Augustus V. Waller...

Operationalism Doctrine Of In

The 1920s, the American philosopher of science Percy W. Bridgman (1882-1961) advanced the logical positivist viewpoint (i.e., the rejection of metaphysics, theology, and ethics as meaningless areas of study, and the suggestion that the only valid propositions are those consisting of elementary propositions that are empirically verifiable) and, in this context, the doctrine of operationalism refers to the requirement that all theoretical terms in science (i.e., those that do not refer to some...

Organismic Theorymodel

ORGANIZATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS THEORY. The branch of applied psychology called organizational industrial psychology covers various areas such as industrial, military, economic, and personnel psychology and researches problems of tests and measurements, organizational behavior, personnel practices, human engineering factors, and the effects of work, fatigue, pay, satisfaction, and efficiency. In the present context of theory, the term organization is defined as a complex social system made up...

Mental Laws Of Association

See MIND MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF. MENTAL SELF-GOVERNMENT THEORY. See INTELLIGENCE, THEORIES LAWS OF. MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT. This phenomenon was first studied quantitatively by the American-based Polish psychologist Robert B. Zajonc (1923- ) in 1968, even though the effect was suggested initially much earlier both by the German philosopher psychologist Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887) in 1876, and the American philosopher psychologist William James (18421910) in 1890. The mere...

Exafference Principle Of

The terms exchange and social exchange refer to a model of social structure that is based on the principle that most social behavior is predicated in the individual's expectation that one's actions with respect to others will result in some type of commensurate return. Exchange theory is a body of theoretical work in sociology and social psychology that emphasizes the importance of the reward-cost interdependence of group members in shaping their social...

Parsimony Lawprinciple Of

Lloyd Morgan's Morgan's canon Occam's razor Occam's principle economy, principle of. The law of parsimony states that if two scientific propositions, or two theories, are equally tenable, the simpler one is to be preferred. Another name for this law is called Lloyd Morgan's canon in honor of the English zoologist physiologist Conway Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936). Morgan articulated the principle in 1894 (cf., the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt who anticipated Morgan's principle in the former's...

Ravens Progressive Matrices Theory See Intelligence Theorieslaws Of

See VISION SIGHT, THEORIES OF. REACTANCE THEORY. A common tendency in human behavior is to react against any attempted restrictions imposed on the individual. The term psychological reactance is defined as the motivational state aroused when a person perceives that a specific behav ioral freedom is threatened with elimination or is actually eliminated. Reactance theory (via Jack W. Brehm and Sharon S. Brehm) holds that under such conditions of threats to personal freedom,...

Olfactionsmell Theories Of

Several interesting things about olfaction in clude the ideas that much of one's perceptual processing of odors is unconscious, that it is very difficult to recall smells, and that it is difficult to name them. However, curiously, the experience of a particular smell at a particular moment can stimulate numerous memories, often highly emotional, of episodes in which that smell was present cf., Proust phenomenon effect - named after the French novelist Marcel Proust (1871-1922), refers to the...

Accommodation Lawprinciple

The concept of accommodation in psychology has a variety of meanings depending on the context in which it is used. In general terms, it refers to any movement or adjustment (physical or psychological) that is made to prepare the organism for some stimulus input. In the context of vision, it refers to the automatic adjustment process wherein the shape of the lens of the eye changes to focus on objects situated at different distances from the observer. The suspensory ligaments hold the lens...

Selfish Gene Hypothesis

In the area of education learning, the procedure of self-monitoring (S-M) refers to the process of discriminating target behaviors - paying deliberate attention to some aspect of one's behavior - and related events, and is an important component of self-regulated (i.e., independent, self-motivated) thinking and learning. The social psychological construct of S-M (i.e., observation and control of expressive behavior and self-presentation) was introduced into...

References

Mother and child A primer of first relationships. New York Basic Books. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York Dou-bleday. Epstein, S. (1973). The self-concept revisited Or a theory of a theory. American Psychologist, 28, 404-416. Skinner, B. F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York Knopf. Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research, 46,...

Selfcategorization Theory

SELF-CONCEPT THEORY. self-psychology theory. Based on self-consistency theory, each individual is guided by his her own theory of reality that, in turn, consists of a self-theory and a world-theory cf., heliocentric theory and its influence on personal self-esteem or self-importance the theory is the Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus' (14731543) view of the solar system in which the universe is no longer seen to revolve around humans on Earth, but the Earth is only one planet rotating on its...

Piano Theory Of Hearing

PIDDINGTON'S COMPENSATORY HUMOR THEORY. The English anthropologist Ralph Piddington refers to his theoretical approach toward humor as the compensatory theory of humor, which is a concept derived from the relationship between elementary laughter and laughter at the ludicrous in which the principle of psychic compensation (i.e., a hypothesized mechanism by which one seeks to make up for a real or imagined psychological defect by developing or exaggerating a psychological strength) is invoked....

Natural Response Theory

This generalization, first proposed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the British biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (18231913) in 1858, asserts that of the range of inheritable variations of traits in a population, those that contribute to an individual's survival will be the ones that have the highest probability of being passed on to the next generation of individuals or organisms. Natural selection assumes that the contributions to succeeding...

Time Perception Theorieslaws

See TIME, THEORIES OF. TIME, THEORIES OF. To the psychologist, the concept of time refers to a dimension of consciousness by which one gives order to experiences. However, to the physicist, time is one of the three basic quantities (the other two are distance and mass) by which the universe is described in physical terms and, to the philosopher, time is a diversity of many other concepts, abstractions, and entities. In the area of cosmology (the science that seeks to achieve a...

Infant Attachment Theories

The English psychiatrist John Bowlby (19071990) introduced the term attachment into psychology and psychiatry, even though Sigmund Freud laid the foundation for theoretical attachment concepts by suggesting the cathexis (i.e., an investment or holding) of libidinal energy onto a love object in order to establish an emotional connection for behavioral stability and organization. Bowlby argued that attachment is an expression of the biology of a species that is exhibited by species-specific...

McNaughton Rulesprinciples

See IMPRESSION FORMATION, THEORIES OF. MEANING, THEORIES AND ASSESSMENT OF. The American psychologists Charles Egerton Osgood (1916-1991) and George John Suci (1925- ), and the Canadian-born American psychologist Percy Hyman Tannenbaum (1927- ), developed a popular paper-and-pencil measurement device called the semantic differential technique that attempts to assess quantitatively the affec-tive connotative meaning (signification) of words, as well as measuring attitudes...

Alexander Model Or Technique

The Australian actor physiotherapist Frederick Mathias Alexander (1869-1955) developed this technique for improving one's posture, breathing, and bodily movements. This physical model attempts to reduce stress, promotes mental well-being, and increases confidence in individuals who practice the method, and is especially popular among performing artists such as actors and musicians. Alexander developed his technique initially to deal with a voice difficulty he had as a young Shakespearean actor...

Cellular Automaton Model

The Hungarian-born American mathematician John von Neumann (1903-1957) described the cellular automaton model, a mathematical model of self-replication and destruction that is represented, typically, by a checkerboard of either fixed or infinite dimensions - each cell of which has a finite number of states (including, usually, a quiescent empty state), and a finite set of neighboring cells that may influence its state. In the model, the pattern of changes are determined by transition rules that...

Paradigm Of Associative Inhibition See Mullerschumann Law

In 1962, the American historian philosopher of science Thomas S. Kuhn (1922-1996) presented his doctrine of the paradigm shift in science. In general, a paradigm is a model, pattern, or diagram of the functions and interrelationships of a process, and includes a conceptual framework within which theories in a specific research area are organized and constructed. In particular, Kuhn proposed that systematic patterns to organize and conduct research within different...

Emotions Theorieslaws Of

Term emotion derives from the Latin emovere, meaning to excite, to move, to agitate, or to stir up. Historically, the term emotion has defied exact definition, even though it is widely used as if implicit agreement existed, and most textbook authors employ it as the title of a chapter, allowing the material presented to be a substitute for a precise definition. Despite the long history of the concept of emotion, which goes back to the early Greek philosophers, as well as to Descartes' analysis...

Batesons Vibratory Theory

This theoretical speculation, often employed in psychological statistics (e.g., Hays, 1963 1994), indicates the relation among various conditional probabilities. Bayes' theorem is named in honor of Thomas Bayes (1702-1761), an 18th century English clergyman and mathematician who did early work in probability and decision theory. Although Bayes wrote on theology, he is best known for his two mathematical works, Introduction to the Doctrine of Fluxions (1736) - a defense of the...

Extinction Of Type S Law Of

SKINNER'S DESCRIPTIVE BEHAVIOR OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY. EXTINCTION THEORY. See AMSEL'S HYPOTHESIS THEORY CAPALDI'S THEORY GUTHRIE'S THEORY OF BEHAVIOR. EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION THEORY. See PARANORMAL PHENOMENON AND THEORY. EYE MOVEMENT THEORY. See APPARENT MOVEMENT, PRINCIPLES THE- ORIES OF CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY OF PERCEPTION MUNSTERBERG'S THEORY OF PERCEPTUAL FLUCTUATIONS. EYE PLACEMENT PRINCIPLE. See GESTALT THEORY LAWS. EYEWITNESS MISINFORMATION EFFECT. misinformation effect. The...

Drainagediversion Hypothesis

A dream may be defined as a more or less coherent imagery sequence that ordinarily occurs during sleep or, simply, as imagery during sleep. Before 19th and 20th century scientific investigations took place, a popular dream theory was that they were divine messages with prophetic intent where the messages were coded, and the decoding task was performed by persons with a gift for dream interpretation (such as tribal leaders, chiefs, or witch doctors in uncivilized primitive...

Ranks Theory Of Personality

The Austrian psychoanalyst Otto Rank (18841939) formulated a theory of personality that may be characterized as an intrapsychic conflict model where all functioning of the individual is expressive of the dual tendency to minimize both the fear of life and the fear of death. According to Rank, life is equivalent to the processes of separation and individualiza-tion, whereas death is the opposite processes of union and fusion. The two opposing fears of life and death are experienced as...

General Theory Of Behavior In

His search for a general theory of behavior, the American social behavioral scientist Richard D. Alexander (1975) offers the desideratum that such a future theory must correspond with current knowledge concerning evolutionary theory, and he suggests that a useful, predictive, and general theory of behavior is unlikely to be constructed by building upward toward greater complexity starting from the engram, the reflex, or some other simple theoretical unit of activity. Alexander describes several...

Labelingdeviance Theory

Labeling theory of deviant behavior, also called societal-reaction theory, postulates an interaction between individuals and their social environment where society both defines and produces deviance. That is, labeling theory focuses on society's reaction to personal behavior as a fundamental aspect of a deviance-producing process. Whereas other models of deviance may place the source of deviance solely within the individual or solely within society, the labeling theory emphasizes the...

Consolidationhypothe

See FORGETTING MEMORY, THE-ORIES OF. CONSTANCY HYPOTHESIS. perceptual constancy. This hypothesis, as employed in the area of perception psychology, states that perceived objects tend to remain constant in size where their distance from the observer (and, thus, the size of their retinal images) varies (cf., theory of misapplied constancy - states that the inappropriate interpretation of cues in the perception of certain illusions is the result of the observer's having previously...

Selyes Theorymodel Of Stress

The Austrian-born Canadian endocrinologist and psychologist Hans Selye (1907-1982) was one of the first modern psychologists to examine systematically the construct of stress and its effects on the organism, although medical and theoretical interest in stress goes back to the Greek physician Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.). In the 1920s, the American physiologist Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945) verified for stress theory that the stress response is part of a unified mind-body system, where a variety of...

Vierordts Law Of Time Estimation See Vierordts Laws

There are two separate usages or versions subsumed under the same eponymic principle called Vierordt's law, both of which are attributable to the German physiologist Karl von Vierordt (18181884). One usage is related to the study of sensory thresholds, and the other usage refers to the area of time perception. In the first case, Vierordt's law is the proposition that the more moveable a part of the body is, the lower is the two-point threshold of the skin over it. Thus, the...

Decay Theory Of Memory

DECISION-MAKING THEORIES. rational choice theory. Decision-making research, generally regarded as a subarea within the field of cognitive psychology, investigates the issue of how organisms make choices between alternatives where the major focus is on human decision-making. Decision theories and choice behavior theories seek to explain decision-making and vary from the highly formal mathematical approaches based on game theory i.e., the decision-making process that takes account of the actions,...

Gamma Movement Effect

APPARENT MOVEMENT, PRINCIPLES THEORIES OF. GARCIA EFFECT. The American psychologist John Garcia (1917-1986) and his colleagues conducted extensive work in the area of learning, specifically on classically conditioned taste aversion. The Garcia effect (also called bait-shyness effect, toxicosis effect, flavor-aversion effect, conditioned food taste aversion, food avoidance learning conditioning, taste-aversion effect, and learned taste flavor aversion), refers to an acquired syndrome in which an...

Freuds Theory Of Personality

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) had early associations with the Austrian physician Josef Breuer (1842-1925) and the French physician Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), who gave him an appreciation of the value of the talking cure, catharsis, and hypnosis for treating hysterical neuroses and, also, of the sexual etiology of neuroses. These experiences with Breuer and Charcot served as the basis for the development of the Freudian theory of personality and the method called psychoanalysis, formally...

Dualroute Theory Of Reading

One of the most influential current theories of word processing and reading is called the dual-route theory (cf., dual-route cascaded model of reading Bates, Castles, Coltheart, Gillespie, Wright, & Martin, 2004) which proposes the existence of two functionally independent mechanisms of processing words one involves access to lexical knowledge, and the other involves access to nonlexical grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. Thus, in the strong version of dual-route theory, it is held that in...

Informal Behaviorist Theory

INFORMATION INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY. In general, information-processing (IP) theory is concerned with the way organisms attend to, select, and internalize information and how the information is used subsequently to make decisions and direct their behavior. Information theory was developed independently in the late 1940s and early 1950s by the English statistician Ronald A. Fisher (1890-1962) and the American mathematicians Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) and Claude E. Shannon (1916- ) and was...

Pribrams Holographic Model

Pribram's holonomic brain theory holographic brain theory. The Austrian-born American physician and neuropsychologist Karl Harry Pribram (1919- ) developed a holographic model of memory (holographic memory) constituting a hypothetical concept of the neurophysiological aspects of memory that resemble a hologram having a three-dimensional feature. In photography, the term holography refers to a method of producing three-dimensional images by using light wave interference patterns, and has been...

Jungs Theory Of Personality

The Swiss-born psychiatrist psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) first met Sigmund Freud in 1907 and was soon named Freud's successor (my crown prince) by Freud, but by 1914 Jung and Freud parted company - never to see one another again -essentially due to theoretical differences concerning the interpretation of psychoanalysis, the influence of determinism on personality (Freud asserted that personality was basically set or determined in the first few years of childhood Jung maintained...

Personalityjob Fit Theory

ORGANIZATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS THEORY. PERSONALITY THEORIES. A theory of personality is a set of unproven speculations about various aspects of human behavior that often invites argument from research-oriented psychologists who decry the lack of quantification and the proliferation of untestable hypotheses found in most personality theories, whereas personality theorists, in turn, criticize the laboratory approach toward understanding behavior as being too artificial and trivial. C. Hall and...

Herrnsteins Matching Law

Matching law was formulated by the American experimental psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein (1930-1994) who observed and recorded the behavior of pigeons pecking two keys for food reinforcement delivered on concurrent variable interval (i.e., an average, non-fixed amount of elapsed time) schedules. The pigeons yielded response curves that con formed closely to a predicted line of perfect matching where response ratios are matched to ratios of obtained reinforcements. The matching law is defined...

Reference

Astonishing hypothesis ASTROLOGY, THEORY OF. This tenacious, and unsubstantiated, theory is based on the belief that celestial bodies, in particular, the stars, have an influence on human behavior and personality (cf., Barnum effect). Historically, astrology is primitive astronomy but, whereas the latter is now a legitimate scientific endeavor, the former is considered as a pseudoscience founded in the notion that the positions of the moon, sun, and stars affect human...

Marxist Psychological Theory

The American psychologist Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-1970) advanced a holistic, organismic, dynamic, and humanistic viewpoint of personality that has features similar to the theories of Kurt Goldstein and Andras Angyal. However, where Goldstein's and Angyal's theories are derived from the study of mentally unhealthy and brain-damaged individuals, Maslow's theory of personality derives from the study of creative, healthy, and self-actualized persons....

Motoric Reproduction Process Hypothesis See Motor Learning Process Theories

In his emphasis on the role offeedback in movement regulation, the American psychologist J. A. Adams (1971) gave a new direction to the topic of motor learning and initiated his closed loop theory, which was developed on the basis of motor-learning em pirical laws employing simple and slow movements of linear positioning. The critical aspects of Adams' theory rest upon the following the feedback production capacity the comparison of the latter to a correctness...

Secondary Laws Of Association

SECONDARY MEMORY. See SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY, THEORIES OF. SECONDARY REINFORCEMENT, PRINCIPLE OF. See REINFORCEMENT THEORY SKINNER'S DESCRIPTIVE BE-HAVIOR OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY. SECURE-BASE PHENOMENON. See DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY. SEDUCTION THEORY. The Austrian neurologist psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (18561939) proposed a seduction theory in 1895 (but abandoned it after a few years), in which the cause of neuroses was thought to be traceable to...

Conditioning Of Type S

See SKINNER'S DESCRIPTIVE BEHAV-IOR AND OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY. CONDUCT, LAWS OF. In 1937, the versatile Swiss psychologist Edouard Cla-parede (1873-1940) formulated the following 13 functional laws of conduct in an attempt to give psychology the back-bone it purportedly needs as a scientific endeavor law of need - a need tends to evoke reactions proper to its satisfaction law of interest - all conduct is dictated by interest, the goal being to secure objects and positions that attract...

Inhibitory Potential Principle

See HULL'S LEARNING THEORY INHIBITION, LAWS OF PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES, LAWS, AND THEORIES SKINNER'S OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY SPENCE'S THEORY. INITIAL VALUE(S), LAW OF. Wilder's law of initial value(s). The Romanian-born Canadian American pharmacist neuropsychia-trist Joseph Wilder (1896-1993) originally formulated in 1931 the law of initial values (LIV) which is an empirical and statistical rule that may be stated as follows the response to agents stimulating the function...

Ecological Systems Model

See CONDUCT, LAWS OF LEAST EFFORT, PRINCIPLE OF. ECONOMY, PRINCIPLE OF. See PARSIMONY, LAW PRINCIPLE OF. EDUCATIONAL THEORY. See HER-BART'S DOCTRINE OF APPERCEPTION LEARNING THEORIES LAWS MIND AND MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING, THORN-DIKE'S THEORY OF. EFFECT, LAW OF. empirical law of effect Thorndike's law of effect law of psychological hedonism. This is one of the major principles of the American psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike's...

Tipofthetongue Phenomenon

TITCHENER'S CONTEXT THEORY OF MEANING. See MEANING, THEORIES ASSESSMENT OF. TOLMAN'S THEORY. The American psychologist Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959) formulated a purposive behavioristic learning theory - also called the sign-gestalt theory and expectancy theory - that emphasizes the cognitive nature of learning (cf., the stimulus-response learning theories of E. L. Thorndike, E. R. Guthrie, B. F. Skinner, and C. L. Hull). In his theory, Tolman is concerned with concepts such as knowledge,...

Lifespan Development Theories See Aging Theories Of

See ADLER'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY HISTORICAL MODELS OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. LIFE, THEORIES OF. The concept of life may be defined as matter having a type of organization, and having the properties of self-perpetuation (for a longer or shorter time) and of reproduction in some form. It is also distinguished by certain characteristics des-cribbed as vital properties of living matter (such as nutrition involving processes of anabolism and catabolism, and irritability...

Granular Theory See Life Theories Of

The theoretical relationship between the features of one's handwriting and his her personality or character has been studied extensively in modern times by the French abbot Jean Hippolyte Michon (1806-1881) and by the German philosopher psychologist Ludwig Klages (1872-1956). Based on analyses of the characteristics and variables in personal handwriting - such as modulations in size of letters, layout, connectedness, slant, regularity, speed, forms, shading, and...

Reality Monitoring Hypothesis

See SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY, THEORIES OF. REALITY PRINCIPLE. See FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. REAL-SIMULATOR MODEL. See HYPNOSIS HYPNOTISM, THEORIES OF. REASONED ACTION AND PLANNED BEHAVIOR THEORIES. This speculation, formulated by the American psychologist Martin Fishbein (1936- ) and the Polish-born American psychologist Icek Ajzen (1942- ), concerns the relationship between attitudes and behavior, and states that a target behavior is determined by behavioral intentions that, in...

Equivalence Principle

The German-born American psychoanalyst Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994) attempted to revive the structure of psychoanalysis after the death of Sigmund Freud in 1939. Erikson considered himself to be a Freudian psychoanalyst in spite of some opinions that he fell outside the Freudian tradition. Erikson helped to establish the theoretical approach called ego psychology, along with the Austrian-born American psychoanalyst Heinz Hartmann (1894-1970), the German...

Dominatormodulator Theory

DONDERS' LAW AND DONDERS' REACTION-TIME TECHNIQUES. The Dutch physiologist ophthalmologist Franciscus Cornells Donders (1818-1889) formulated this principle of visual fixation in 1846, according to which every position of the lines of regard in relation to the head corresponds to a definite, invariable angle of torsion of the eyes, regardless of the path by which that position has been reached. Another version of Donders' law states that the position of the eyes in looking at an object is...

Thermal Sensitivity Theories

See NAFE'S VASCULAR THEORY OF CUTANEOUS SENSITIVITY. THERMODYNAMICS, LAWS OF. These laws, originating in the physical sciences but often invoked in explaining psychological phenomena, refer to the study of principles governing the interrelationships between heat, mechanical work, and other forms of energy and their influence on the behavior of systems. The first law of thermodynamics, also called the law of the conservation of energy when referring to situations in which heat transfer takes...

Work Adjustment Theory Of

See WORK CAREER OCCUPATION, THEORIES OF. WORK CAREER OCCUPATION, THEORIES OF. The psychological study of work, career, and occupational factors ranges from theories of decision-making in career development to human engineering human factors, work fatigue efficiency, applications research, and work motivation theories. Theories of career development fall into one of several classes trait-oriented, systems-oriented, personality-oriented, or developmental. Although no single approach seems to...

Defensive Techniques Theory

See GOOD BREAST OBJECT AND BAD BREAST OBJECT THEORY. DEFINITIONAL THEORY. See CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT FORMATION, THEORIES OF PROTOTYPE THEORY. DEGENERACY THEORY. See SEXUAL ORIENTATION THEORIES. DEGENERACY THEORY OF GENIUS. See LOMBROSIAN THEORY. DEGRADATION, LAW OF. See WEBER'S LAW. DEGREES OF CONSCIOUSNESS THEORY. See HERBART'S DOCTRINE OF APPERCEPTION. DEINDIVIDUATION THEORY. The term deindividuation refers to the loss of one's sense of individuality during which the person behaves with...

Imageless Thought Theory

WUNDT'S THEORIES DOCTRINES PRINCIPLES. IMAGEN THEORY. See SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY, THEORIES OF. IMAGERY LAW OF COMPENSATION RIVALRY. See IMAGERY MENTAL IMAGERY, THEORIES OF. IMAGERY MENTAL IMAGERY, THEORIES OF. In the context of cognitive experiences, the term image refers to a mental representation of an earlier sensory stimulus or experience and represents a less vivid copy of that event cf., imagery law of compensation rivalry - proposed by the English psychologist Charles W....

Cognitive Style Models

Construct of cognitive learning style may be defined as the relatively stable individual preferences for perceptual and conceptual organization and categorization of the external environment (cf., the early laws principles of abstraction Moore, 1910). The terms cognitive style and cognition have been introduced and reintroduced into the psychological literature over a period of time extending back to the German psychologists at the turn of the 20th century. Also, the Swiss psychologist Carl...

Attributionattitude Boomerang Effect See Attribution Theory

The Austrian-American psychologist Fritz Heider (18961988) was preeminent in the formulation of balance theory in the study of attitudes (i.e., people are motivated to maintain balance, harmony, or cognitive consonance among their attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs cf., state of imbalance, disharmony, or cognitive dissonance) and of attribution theory in the study of social perception that originated in social psychology and is a general approach for describing the ways...

Alzheimers Disease Theory In

1907, the German physician neurologist Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) first described the brain lesions associated with the degenerative brain disease, now called Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and emotional psychological instability, and is accompanied by postmortem evidence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (insoluble nerve fibers). Some theorists speculate that the amyloid plaques (insoluble beta-amyloid proteins) are responsible for the symp toms...

Hormonal Theory Of Hunger

See COLOR VISION, THEORIES LAWS OF. HORNEY'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. The German-born American physician and psychiatrist Karen Clementine Danielson Horney (1885-1952) was trained originally in the method of Freudian psychoanalysis theory but she broke away eventually from the standard Freudian orthodoxy over the issue of female sexuality. Where Freud emphasized the concepts of penis envy, jealousy of the male, libido theory, and feelings of genital inferiority as determinants in...

Rumor Transmission Theory A

Rumor may be defined as an unconfirmed message passed from one person to another in face-to-face interaction (cf., children's game of Gossip or Chinese Whispers) that refers to an object, person, or situation rather than to an idea or theory. Thus, the notions of gossip, grapevine, hearsay, tattle-tale, and scuttlebutt (along with the snowball effect - the increased magnification of material upon the retelling of it) are included in rumor transmission. The American sociologist H. Taylor Buckner...

Hobbes Psychological Theory

The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), often referred to as the founder of British empiricism (cf., Locke's psychological theory), asserted in his primary principle of psychology that all knowledge is derived through sensations. By suggesting that nothing exists internal or external to the individual (except matter and motion), Hobbes grounded his psychology firmly in the philosophical positions called materialism and mechanism (cf., Brennan, 1991). The materialistic approach...

Growthactualization Theory

See MASLOW'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF. GROWTH PRINCIPLE. See ROGERS' THEORY OF PERSONALITY. GRUNER'S GAME THEORY OF HUMOR. The theoretical proposition advanced by the American humor researcher Charles R. Gruner (1931- ) is that all humor - including, in particular, puns (which involves the game of word play) - is actually a disguised succession of games that are there to be won. The very notion of games implies fun, leisure, entertainment, recreation, and affable human...

Early Greek And Later Philosophical Theories Of Time

Greek philosophers in the sixth- and fifth-centuries B.C. identified dual aspects of time (being - the continuity aspect of Parmenides and becoming - the transcience aspect of Heraclitus) that, to this day, are concepts that are unreconciled. According to these early philosophers, time extends continuously from the past to the future (the being aspect), and things change in time (the becoming aspect). In the history of language, words for time are long preceded by words for past, present, and...

Mindmental States Theories

In its generalized form, mind theory refers to people's beliefs, cognitions, and intuitive understanding of their own, and other people's, mind mental states that develop over a period of time beginning at a very early age (cf., solipsistic doctrine - a philosophical speculation that there can be no proof that phenomena exist outside of the mind inasmuch as everything is assumed to be dependent on personal perception also, it is the extreme view that only the self exists, where everything...

Deutschs Structural Model

Development is defined as the sequence and patterns of changes that occur over the full life span of an organism. The area of developmental psychology initially - via G. Stanley Hall in the early 1900s, who proposed a biogenetic theory of development - referred to the study of the full life span from birth to death, but today the tendency is to use the term, also, in more specific ways (e.g., developmental aphasia, developmental articulation disorder, developmental...

Reconstruction Theory

The Scottish philosopher Sir William Hamilton (1788-1856) first proposed the principle of redintegration, which refers to an impression one has that tends to bring back into consciousness the whole situation of which it was a part at one time (cf., law of piecemeal activity - E. L. Thorndike's principle that a learned response may still be given when only part of the original stimulus situation is presented). Hamilton's theory concerning the nature of memory...

Behavioral Theory Of Timing

The behavioral theory of timing (Killeen & Fetterman, 1988) is based on the observation that signals of reinforcement elicit adjunc-tive (elicited or emitted, interim or terminal) behaviors where transitions between such behaviors are caused by pulses from an internal clock. The interbehavioral transitions are described as a Poisson process, with a rate constant proportional to the rate of reinforcement in the experimental context. Additionally, these adjunctive behaviors may come to serve...

Biological Theories Of Depression See Depression Theories Of

This speculation states - in its modern version - that there are three different biorhythm cycles that influence three different general aspects of human behavior a 23-day cycle that affects physical aspects of behavior, a 28-day cycle that influences emotions, and a 33-day cycle that affects intellectual functions. Moreover, according to the biorhythm theory, the three cycles purportedly start at birth and progress in a sinusoidal fashion throughout one's life and do not vary...

Common Direction Common Fate Good Continuation

See ALLAIS PARADOX EFFECT. COMMONS DILEMMA. See RESOURCE DILEMMA MODEL PARADIGM. COMMONSENSE THEORY OF EMOTIONS. See JAMES-LANGE LANGEJAMES THEORY OF EMOTIONS. COMMUNICATION THEORY. In broad terms, communication refers to the transmission of something from one location to another where the thing that is transmitted may be a message, a signal, a meaning, and so on, where both the transmitter and the receiver must share a common code so that the meaning of the information...

Probability Theorylaws

Mathematical foundation of probability theory forms the basis for all the statistical techniques of psychology. Probability theory originated in games of gambling where, on the basis of a relatively small number of trials (e.g., roulette-wheel spins, dice throws, poker hands), some decisions needed to be made about the likelihood of particular events occurring in the long run, given the basic assumption of the uniformity of nature and the mutual cancellation of complementary errors. The...

Moral Nihilism Doctrine Of

MORENO'S SOCIAL GROUP TECHNIQUES THEORY. The Romanian-born American psychiatrist Jacob Levy Moreno (1889-1974) developed a number of techniques for studying and assessing the dynamics of social group processes and interpersonal relationships, among which are the following sociodrama - a group-training and role-taking method that is a supplement to Moreno's psychodrama technique (i.e., a therapeutic format whereby people act out their own emotional problems conflicts in front of an audience for...

Intelligence Theorieslaws Of

The concept of intelligence is broad in nature and refers to a person's complex mental abilities that include, among other things, the variables of amount of knowledge available at a given time speed with which new knowledge is acquired the ability to adapt to new situations and the ability to deal with new and old concepts, abstract symbols, and cognitive relationships. The process of developing general mental schemas to classify events in the environment is called abstract intelligence...

Confirmation Paradox See Null Hypothesis

The term conflict is an extremely broad concept used to refer to any situation where there are mutually antagonistic events, motives, behaviors, impulses, or purposes. In the area of learning and motivation psychology, the American experimental psychologist Neal Elgar Miller (1909-2002) and his colleagues developed a precise formulation of conflict theory based on some preliminary ideas of the German-born American social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). According to...

Color Vision Theorieslaws

The concept of color is a psychological (subjective) experience or sensation that is associated with the presence of a physical light source and depends on three aspects of the actual physical energy intensity (brightness), wavelength (hue), and purity (saturation). Most humans see the shorter visible wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum as bluish (about 480 nanometers, or nm) the medium wavelengths as greenish (about 510 nm) and yellowish (about 580 nm) and the longer...

Locus Of Control Theory

The German-born zoologist physiologist Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) formulated a theory of the tro-pism as applied to animal behavior. The term tropism refers to any unlearned movement or orientation of an organic unit as a whole toward a source of stimulation cf., phototro-pism, which means turning toward light heliotropism is movement toward the sun, geotropism is a simple orienting response, either negative or positive, to the lines of force of gravity, and...

Adams Zone Theory See Color Vision Theorieslaws Of

The term adaptation derives from the Latin word adaptare, meaning to fit, and has a variety of meanings in science. In biology, adaptation refers to structural or behavioral changes of an organism, or part of an organism, that fit it more perfectly for the environmental conditions in which it lives where the changes have evolutionary survival value. In physiology, adaptation is the change or adjustment of a sense organ to some incoming stimulation, and the term...

Witkins Perceptionpersonalitycognitive Style Theory

Witkin (1916-1979) conducted research on cognitive styles in the 1940s, in particular on individual differences in the perception of the upright in space. An earlier approach toward understanding visual space perception, especially one related to the perception of rotation movement in space, was provided by the Austrian physicist philosopher Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his theory of bodily rotation (also called the Mach-Breuer-Brown theory of labyrinthine...

Schizophrenia Theories Of

Term schizophrenia is a general label for a number of psychotic disorders with various behavioral, emotional, and cognitive features. The term was originated by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler 1857-1939 in 1911, who offered it as a replacement for the term dementia praecox i.e., precocious madness deterioration insanity . In its literal meaning, schizophrenia is a splitting of the mind, a connotation reflecting a dissociation or separation between the functions of feeling emotion, on one...

Von Kriesschrodinger Zone Theory See Color Vision Theorieslaws Of

Restorff phenomenon effect. The German psychologist and physician Hedwig von Restorff 1906- developed the generalization that if in a given series of stimuli to be learned such as a list of words , one of them is made physically distinctive in some way e.g., printed in large type or in a different color from the others , it will be easier to learn and recall. This phenomenon, called the von Restorff effect, and also known as the isolation effect and the Koh-ler-Restorff...

Structured Learning Theory

See INTELLIGENCE, THEORIES LAWS OF. STUDENT RETENTION ATTRITION MODEL. This model of student retention in higher education cf., Spady, 1970 attempts to account for the factors that contribute to students' remaining in the academic setting until specified educational goals have been achieved. According to W. Spady's sociological model - that includes the constructs of social support and college satisfaction as mediating variables - social support has a direct...

Murphys Biosocial Theory

The American psychologist Gardner Murphy 1895-1979 formulated a biosocial theory of personality that was popular in the 1950s and was eclectic in nature by combining holistic, evolutionary, functional, and biosocial concepts into a comprehensive psychological system cf., the Swiss-American physician Adolf Meyer's 1866-1950 integrative theory of psychobiology, which emphasizes the importance of biological, social, and psychological influences on the individual and the American...

Bergsons Theory Of Time

French philosopher Henri Bergson 18591941 made the experience of time central to his overall philosophy. He developed a relational subjective basis in his approach to explaining time and, thereby, reacted against the scientific and mechanistic thought that was present in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Bergson distinguishes between chronological time which symbolizes space and duration which is apprehended through intuition and is identical with the essence of life . Whereas...

Visionsight Theories Of One of

The earliest theories that attempted to describe a mechanism for human vision was proposed by the Greek mathematician mystic Pythagoras c. 582-507 B.C. . He asserted that rays of light sprang from the eyes themselves, much like twin spotlights somehow, the light striking objects in front of the observer triggered a reaction in the eye, and vision was the result. However, by the 15th century, Pythagoras' theory was reversed, where the eyes were considered the receivers, not senders, of light. By...

Forgettingmemory Theories

Four major theories of forgetting and memory have been described consistently in the psychological literature decay trace theory, interference theory, reconstruction theory, and theory of motivated forgetting cf., the law of forgetting - the principle that forgetting increases linearly with the logarithm of the time since learning occurred . According to the decay trace theory often called the power law of forgetting , which is a classical, intuitive, and commonsense approach to forgetting,...

Roelofs Effect See Appendix A Rogers Theory Of Personality

The American psychologist psychotherapist Carl Rogers 1902-1987 developed a huma-istic theory of personality that essentially is phenomenological in nature and falls between the psychoanalytic approach and the behavior-istic orientation. The humanistic outlook called the third force in psychology toward personality is one of optimism where it is argued that individuals contain within themselves the potentialities for healthy and creative growth if they accept the responsibility for their own...

Reicherwheeler Effect

The Austrian-born American psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich 1897-1957 formu lated a dissident psychoanalytic theory called the orgone theory, which is based on the assumption that a specific form of energy called orgone energy fills all space and accounts for all life cf., bioenergetics theory - deals with the energy relationships in living organisms, and is a psychotherapeutic technique developed by the American psychiatrist Alexander Lowen 1910- and Reichenbach...

Uncertainty Principle

HEISENBERG'S PRINCIPLE OF UNCER-TAIN-TY INDETERMINACY. UNCONSCIOUS INFERENCE, DOCTRINE OF. The German physiologist psychologist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Helm-holtz 1821-1894 developed the doctrine of unconscious inference in German, unbewusster Schluss , which refers to a judgment one makes on the basis of a limited amount of data or evidence and is made without conscious awareness cf., Sigmund Freud's depth psychology theory of unconscious memory and unconsciousness makes reference to the...

Catastrophe Theorymodel

This notion, as developed in psychology by the Hungarian psychoanalyst Sandor Fer-enczi 1873-1933 , states that the act of sexual intercourse is destructive - in a psychodynamic sense - to the male's penis that is, the neurotically anxious patient may hold a belief that sexual intercourse is damaging to his penis. In his ontogenetic and phylogenetic catastrophe theory of coitus, Ferenczi notes that in the normal coitus of non-neurotic men, the inner tension-seeking for discharge overcomes any...

Least Effort Principle Of law

This general principle states that when there are a number of possibilities for action, a person will select the one that requires the least amount of effort, or the one that involves the minimum expenditure of cognitive energy cf., Allport, 1954 . The principle has been invoked in a wide range of disciplines and in a diverse range of problems from rats learning to run mazes cf., Tsai, 1932 to the operation of economic systems. In the area of personality and social psychology,...

Arnolds Theory Of Emotions

Arnold's 1903-2002 theory of emotions emphasizes the cognitive factors associated with emotional behavior that involves a continuous sequence of reaction and appraisal where a series of information-processing steps takes place. In the first phase of processing, the person typically perceives some event, object, or person and is prepared to evaluate it in a particular way as good, which leads to approach behavior, as bad, which leads to avoidance behavior, or...

Persuasioninfluence Theories

The phenomenon of persuasion refers to the social-cognitive process by which attitude change occurs, and typically involves the presentation of a message s containing arguments in favor of, or against, the person, issue, or object that is the target of the change process cf., hypocrisy theory - predicts that if one person attempts to persuade another person to stop performing an activity behavior that the first person actually continues to engage in, the attempt typically does not succeed the...

Skinners Descriptive Behavior Operant Conditioning Theory

The American psychologist Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1904-1990 developed a distinctive approach to understanding human and animal learning and behavior called operant reinforcement conditioning. In examining Skinner's approach, it is noteworthy that he rejected the use of formal theory in learning and psychology, especially the postulate-theorem, hypothetico-deductive deductive reasoning type of approach to theorizing. It may be said that Skinner's general approach follows the Baconian method...

Signal Detection Theory Of

Sensory decision theory detection theory statistical decision theory. The theory of signal detection TSD - developed by the American psychologist John A. Swets 1928 and his colleagues - is a mathematical theory of the detection of physical signals that measures not only an observer's ability to detect a stimulus when it is present but also one's guessing behavior as reflected in a yes response when, in fact, no signal is present in this sense, TSD is a statistical decision theory where the...

Hollow Squares Illusion

HOLMES' REBOUND PHENOMENON EFFECT. rebound phenomenon of Gordon Holmes Holmes' phenomenon sign Gordon Holmes' rebound phenomenon. The Irish clinical neurologist Sir Gordon Morgan Holmes 1876-1965 observed in patients with cerebellar lesions that the forcible motion of the person's limb towards the source of pressure occurs when that pressure is removed suddenly it is proposed in undiagnosed persons that the Holmes' rebound effect may be considered to be a sign of cerebellar damage, and the...

Somatopsychics Theory See OR

See KRET-SCHMER'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY SHELDON'S TYPE THEORY. SOMESTHESIS, THEORIES OF. Three basic theories of somesthesis i.e., the bodily sensations including the cutaneous senses, proprioception, and kinaesthesis that have been proposed since the late 1800s are von Frey's classical or four-element theory, Head's theory of dual sensibilities, and Nafe's pattern theory of feeling. Following enunciation of the doctrine of specific nerve energies by Johannes Muller in 1838,...

Haeckels Prokaryotic Theory

The halo effect also called the atmosphere effect and halo error is a person-perception phenomenon that refers to the tendency favorable or unfavorable to evaluate an individual high on many other traits because of a belief, or evidence, that the individual is high on one particular trait that is, the rated trait seems to spill over onto other traits. The halo effect most often emerges as a bias on personal rating scales, but may also appear in the classroom e.g., R. Nash, 1976 ....

Platos Theory Of Humor

Early Greek philosopher Plato c. 427-c. 347 B.C. proposed that what people laugh at is vice, particular as revealed in the self-ignorance or lack of self-knowledge that occurs in those who are relatively powerless. According to Plato's theory of humor, human amusement is a type of malice or derision toward such powerless people, and is based on situations that make the observer feel superior in some way. It is noteworthy that Plato cautioned that rational people should generally suppress their...

Germplasmcontinuity Theory

See MIND MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF. GESCHWIND'S THEORY. The American behavioral neurologist Norman Geschwind 1926-1984 speculated that excessive intrauterine exposure to androgens inhibits development in the individual's thymus and left cerebral hemisphere Geschwind attempted to explain why learning disabilities and left-handedness are associated with autoimmune disorders and, also, to explain why they are more prevalent in men than in women. Thus, according to Geschwind's theory,...

Pure Meaning Concept Of

In the early 1800s, the Czech-born German physiologist Jan Evangelista Purkinje 1787-1869 also spelled Purkyne described the change in color sensitivity as a visual stimulus moves from the center of the visual field to the periphery - where colors become gray at the periphery of the field and different colors change at different visual field locations. In 1825, Purkinje also reported that visual accommodation is caused by changes in the shape of the eye's lens....