Color Mixing Principles Of

COLOR MIXTURE, LAWS THEORY OF. additive color mixture, principles of. subtractive color mixture, principles of. color mixing, principles of. The color of objects in the environment are determined by pigments hat are chemicals on the objects' surface that absorb some wavelengths of light and, consequently, prevent those wavelengths of light from being reflected. Also, different pigments permit different wavelengths to be reflected. For example, a pigment that absorbs short and medium wavelengths...

Generalization Principles Of

The principle of response generalization states that an increase (or decrease) in the strength of one response through a reinforcement (or extinction) procedure is accompanied by a similar, but smaller, increase (or decrease) in the strength of other responses that have properties common with the first response. The principle of stimulus generalization is the tendency for stimuli similar to the original stimulus in a learning situation to produce the response originally acquired (cf., the unit...

Plutchiks Model Of Emotions

The American psychologist Robert Plutchik -like C. E. Izard and S. Tomkins - independently developed an approach toward the understanding of emotions that is based largely on the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Plutchik's model, also known as the multidimensional model of the emotions (MME), shows how primary emotions such as surprise and fear may blend into second-dary emotions such as awe, as well as indicates how various emotions such as fear, terror, and apprehension may...

Recapitulation Theorylaw

Biogenetic recapitulation theory recapitul-tionism palingenesis. This theory, developed and taught by the American psychologist Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924), and often referred to as both a principle and a doctrine, states that the development of an individual organism is a microcosmic reenactment of the evolution of its species and emphasizes the predetermined progression in development. Hall's recapitulation theory was the direct outcome of the impact of Darwin's evolutionary theory on...

Achs Lawsprinciplestheory

The German psychologist Narziss Ach (18711946) was one member of the group of researchers (others included O. Kulpe, H. Watt, K. Marbe, and K. Buhler) at the famous Wurzburg new experimental school in Germany during the early 1900s. The Wurzburg group studied thought processes via verbalized introspection and complex cognitive events (as opposed to studying sensations, which was the primary emphasis at the University of Leipzig under Wilhelm Wundt's leadership). Ach's work on systematic...

Punishment Theories Of In the

Context of operant conditioning (i.e., learning from consequences), the term reinforcement refers to an increase in the frequency of a behavior, whereas the term punishment denotes a decrease in the frequency of a behavior. One way that punishment may be administered, called positive punishment, is via the application of some aversive stimulus (e.g., give a spanking, an electric shock, etc.) contingent on the occurrence of a particular behavior. Another method, called negative punishment, for...

Controlsystems Theory

Terms control theory and control theory psychology are recent names for describing the development of a body of theory based on a feedback-system model or paradigm. Control theory posits that there are self-monitoring and self-functioning systems in living organisms similar to governors on motors that prevent them from going too fast the control aspect essentially protects the organism from itself. Other current synonymous names for this approach include cybernetic psychology, general feedback...

Wheatstonepanum Limiting Case See Panum Phenomenoneffect

See OLFACTION SMELL, THEORIES OF. WHORF-SAPIR HYPOTHESIS THEORY. Whorfian hypothesis Whorf s hypothesis linguistic relativity hypothesis Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. The American linguists and anthropologists Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) and Edward Sapir (18841939) formulated the Whorf-Sapir linguistic hypothesis, which states that one's language influences the nature of one's perceptions and thoughts, and was first suggested by the German ethnologist Wilhelm von Humboldt...

Convergent Evolution

In logical reasoning, this is a speculation that some errors in judging the validity of syllogisms occur because people mentally translate a premise into one that appears to them to be equivalent but actually has a different logical meaning. For instance, the statement If X, then Y may be translated or converted mentally to If and only if X, then Y, which may lead to the incorrect inference If not-X, then not-Y. Related to such erroneous logical mental conversions is the...

Purposivecognitive Theory

BEHAVIORIST THEORY REINFORCEMENT THEORY TOLMAN'S THEORY. PYGMALION EFFECT. pygmalionism. This phenomenon is derived from the name of a 1912 play (called Pygmalion) by the Ireland-born British playwright, dramatist, and critic George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950). Originally, the name Pygmalion came from a Greek legend in which Pygmalion, a king of Cyprus, and a sculptor, made a statue of a beautiful maiden (named Galatea). Aphrodite - the goddess of love and beauty - gave the statue life after she...

Parental Investment Theory

Trivers (1943- ) introduced the notion of parental investment into the field of ethology, and defined the concept as any contribution that a parent makes towards an offspring, and which tends to increase that individual offspring's chances of survival and reproduction at the expense of the parent's ability to contribute to other offspring, including the production of sex cells, and the feeding and guarding protection of the young (cf., parental imperative...

Attachment Principle Of

CUPBOARD THEORY INFANT ATTACHMENT THEORIES. ATTENTION, LAWS PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF. The term attention is defined differently depending on the context in which it is used. In a functional sense, for instance, attention refers to the process of focusing on certain portions of an experience so that the parts become relatively more distinctive (cf., readiness potential - a large negative difference in voltage across the cerebral cortex, hypothesized to be indicative of attention, and...

Parallel And Serial Theories Of Timing See Scalar Timing Theory

PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESS ING MODEL. This model of knowledge- and information-processing represents units and items of information as patterns of connections of differing strengths between locations within a network model (i.e., any model consisting of a collection of units, each joined to one or more other units that it may inhibit or excite). In this model, also generally known as a distributed network model, information processing assumes the form of the parallel processing of collections...

Kraepelins Theoryclassification See Psychopathology Theories Of

KRETSCHMER'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. somatotype theory typology theory. The German psychiatrist Ernst Kret-schmer (1888-1964) devised a theory of personality based on the relationship of physical characteristics to personality attributes. Before Kretschmer's theory appeared, various other viewpoints were advanced by early investigators concerning the association between physical and personality traits. The Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.) suggested both a typology of physique and a...

Bystander Intervention Effect

This phenomenon was described by the American social psychologists Bibb Latane (1937- ) and John Darley (1938- ), and suggests that bystanders are engaged in a series of decisions, rather than a single decision, as whether to intervene or not in situations when help is needed by another person for example, the bystander must notice that something is happening the bystander must interpret the happening as an emergency event the bystander must decide that she or he has a...

References

Reward and punishment in animal learning. Compara-ative Psychology Monographs, 8, No. 39. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms An experimental analysis. New York Appleton-Century-Cro-fts. Estes, W. (1944). An experimental study of punishment. Psychological Monographs, No. 263. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York Macmillan. Dinsmoor, J. (1954). Punishment. I. The avoidance hypothesis. Psychological Review, 61, 34-46. Dinsmoor, J....

Social Facilitation Theory

ZAJONC'S AROUSAL AND CONFLUENCE THEORIES. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY. See CONSTRUCTIVISM, THEORIES OF. SOCIAL IMPACT, LAW OF. The American social psychologist Bibb Latane (1937- ) formulated the law of social impact that is designed to explain various social influence effects, including the phenomena of conformity, compliance, obedience, and persuasion. The law may be expressed, simply, by the equation M f (SIN), where M is the magnitude of the impact, f indicates a function, S is the strength...

Willmers Color Theory

Willmer (dates unknown) proposed a theory of color vision that postulates three mechanisms in the retina cones, dark-adapting rods, and non-dark-adapting rods. Willmer's color theory asserts that color vision may be explained by the relative ratio of rods and cones at various wavelengths, and indicates that when a curve is plotted to show the summation of rod and cone responses at various wavelengths of the visible spectrum, the curve has some affinity to the...

J

See NEURON NEURAL NERVE THEORY. JAMES-LANGE LANGE-JAMES THEORY OF EMOTIONS. This theory is credited to both the American philosopher psychologist William James (1842-1910) and the Danish psychologist Carl Georg Lange (18341900), who independently proposed the theory. The term James-Lange theory is seen more frequently in the psychological literature, but the Lange-James theory has been used as well. The theory is sometimes called the counterintuitive theory of emotions because it...

Zollnerpoggendorff Illusion

The phenomenon of zombiism (i.e., a corpse-like robot-like human being believed to belong to the living dead, who is buried alive and resurrected by witchdoctors in order to carry out their directives, existing in particular in the voodoo cult of Haiti and various West African religions) has been studied by the Irish-Canadian ethnobi-ologist E. Wade Davis (1953- ). In his zom-biism theory, Davis suggests that in the secret cult activities the ingestion by the victim of a barely...

Montessori Methodtheory

Italian physician (Italy's first woman physician) and educator Maria Montessori (18701952) established an educational system in Italy in the early 1900s that emphasized the self-education of preschool children via the development of initiative by means of freedom of action. The Montessori method theory involves training in sense perception using objects of different colors, shapes, and sizes, and the development of eye-hand coordination in exercises and games. Montessori's educational model...

Complementary Odors

See OLFACTION SMELL, THEORIES OF. COMPLEX MAN THEORY. See ORGANIZATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS THEORY. COMPLEXES, THEORY OF. The Austrian physician Josef Breuer (1842-1925) first introduced the theoretical notion of complex (i.e., a presumed organized structure or collection of ideas, impulses, and memories sharing a common emotional tone that is excluded wholly or partly from consciousness, but continues to affect a person's thoughts and behaviors) into psychology and psychoanalysis in 1895,...

Existential Analysis Theory

The Swiss psychiatrist existentialist Ludwig Binswanger (1881-1966) developed this theoretical form of psychoanalysis in the 1930s that is based on the philosophical phenomen-ological movement called existentialism -advanced by the Danish philosopher Soren A. Kierkegaard (1813-1855), the German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and the French philosopher writers Albert Camus (1913-1960), Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), and Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) - which emphasizes the existence of...

Hypnosishypnotism Theories

The British surgeon James Braid (17951860) is credited by some writers to be the discoverer of hypnosis (Braid actually first introduced the term hypnosis in 1852), and others hold that the German physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) should be recognized as the founding father of modern hypnosis (which Mesmer called animal magnetism). It was Braid's idea that hypnosis is really nothing more than suggestion, and his significance for psychology is that he took the phenomenon out of the...

Cumulative Advantage Doctrine Of See Matthew Effect

CUMULATIVE DEFICITS THEORY PHENOMENA. The American social psychologist Morton Deutsch (1920- ) and the Nigerian psychologist Christopher Bakare (1935- ) both suggested the cumulative deficits phenonenon theory, and Bakare formulated a theory of the cumulative cognitive deficit syndrome. The theory of cumulative deficits refers to the condition where, with persistent influence from an impoverished environment, there is over time an increasingly larger negative effect on the behavior in question....

Parametersetting Theory

PARANORMAL PHENOMENA THEORY. extra-sensory perception parapsychology psi phenomena. The paranormal class of effects refers to supernatural events results (beyond the normal) that are inexplicable by the usual laws of science and or reason. The related terms extra-sensory perception (ESP) (including clairvoyance, precognition, and telepathy) and psychokinesis (PK) are generic terms for various hypothetical paranormal phenomena that involve experiences having no direct sensory contact, or refer...

Adlers Theory Of Personality

The Austrian psychoanalyst Alfred Adler (1870-1937) received his medical degree in 1895 from the University of Vienna with a specialty in ophthalmology but then changed to psychiatry after practicing in general medicine. Adler was one of the charter members of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, serving as its president in 1910, but resigned from the society in 1911 because of theoretical differences with Sigmund Freud. Adler went on to establish his own school, called the Society for Free...

Minitheories Of Emotion

Recent physiological research indicates that mirror neurons, first located in the rostral part of monkeys' ventral premotor cortex (called area F5), discharge under conditions both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same, or a similar, action (i.e., imitation gestures and affor-dances). Also, in the same cortical area, mirror neurons have been found that respond to the observation of mouth actions....

Angyals Personality Theory

The Hungarian-American personality psychologist Andras Angyal (1902-1960) developed a theory of personality in which he describes two basic types of motivational processes in humans striving toward love (hom-onomy) and striving toward mastery (autonomy). Angyal conceived of personality as an interdependent system where tensions arise between the person and the environment and is controlled by both homonomy and autonomy processes. In Angyal's formulation, the connection between the parts of the...

Z

ZAJONC'S AROUSAL AND CONFLUENCE THEORIES. The Polish-bom social psychologist Robert B. Zajonc (1923- ) proposed the following generalization concerning social facilitation (i.e., the tendency to perform a task better in the presence of others than when alone) and social interference (i.e., a decline in performance when observers are present) the presence of others facilitates performance of dominant (i.e., simple, habitual, or instinctive) responses and interferes with performance of...

Ludovicis Theory Of Laughter

The outspoken English-born writer, Nietzschean philosopher, and intellectual Anthony Mario Ludovici (1882-1971) - who once described himself as taking a fearless approach to the truth - provides a new theory of laughter in which the roots of laughter are seen to lie in the triumph one attains over other people or circumstances. Such an idea-tional theoretical basis for humor laughter is included in a genre called superiority theories of humor. Ludovici maintains that laughter may be traced back...

Cognitive Sign Principle

COGNITIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVATION, LAW OF. This cognitive and social psychological law is an empirical generalization that specifies the conditions under which an activated structure will be used to process new stimulus input. The law may be stated, formally, as when a stimulus is ambiguous enough to be encodable as an instance of multiple cognitive structures, the stimulus most likely will be encoded as an instance of that cognitive structure that is the most activated in memory and is the most...

Kelleys Cube Modeltheory

ATTRIBUTION THEORY KELLEY'S COVARIATION THEORY. KELLEY'S PRINCIPLE OF COVARIATION CORRELATION. See ATTRIBUTION THEORY KELLEY'S COVARIATION THEORY. KELLY'S PERSONAL CONSTRUCT THEORY. role-construct theory. The American psychologist George A. Kelly (19051967) developed the personal construct theory of personality, which emphasizes the ways in which individuals interpret or construe events, and advances the viewpoint that each person unwittingly takes the role of scientist by observing events,...

Joint Agreementdisagreement

See PARSIMONY, LAW PRINCIPLE OF. JOHN HENRY EFFECT. See EXPERIMENTER EFFECTS. JOST'S LAWS. The German psychologist Adolph Jost (1874-1920) formulated these laws based on his work, as well as the earlier research by the German psychologist Hermann von Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) in 1885 in the area of human learning and retention. The earlier studies reported that when lists of materials are learned on successive days (distributed practice) using the same criterion each day, the number of...

Sexual Orientation Theories

Homoeroticism homosexuality theories. The concept of sexual orientation refers to the focus and direction of an individual's sexual interest. Heterosexual orientation is sexual attraction to members of the opposite sex gender homosexual orientation is sexual attraction to members of one's own sex gender and bisexual orientation is sexual attraction to both sexes genders. Historically, the German physician, sex researcher, and homosexual Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935) supported some hormonal...

Universal Law Of Gravitation

UNIVERSAL MODEL OF HUMAN EMOTIONS. The American neurologist physician Antonio R. Damasio (1994) developed a universal model of human emotions that is based on a rejection of the Cartesian mind-body dualism, and is founded on neuropsychological studies and experiments. The model begins with the assumption that human knowledge consists of dispositional representations stored in the brain (where thought is the process by which such representations are ordered...

Apertural Hypothesis See MC

DOUGALL'S HORMIC OR INSTINCT THEORY DOCTRINE. APOLLONIAN DIONYSIAN DISTINCTION. The German philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) made a theoretical distinction - often employed in psychological discussions of personality and temperament - between the terms Apollonian and Dionysian in his philosophy where the former term (named after Apollo, the Greek god of light, music, poetry, prophesy and healing) refers to rational, controlled, and serene behavior and relates to static...

Excitation Transfer Theory

EXCLUDED MIDDLE THIRD, LAW PRINCIPLE OF. In the context of formal logic, the principle of excluded middle (or third) formulates one aspect of the simple and universal condition of knowledge every judgment must be either true or false. That is, between the assertions that express the truth and the falsity of any significant judgment, there is no medium- or middle-ground one or the other must be true. J. M. Baldwin suggests that in order to avoid confusion regarding the scope and nature of the...

Neuronneuralnerve Theory

The neuron (or neurone, nerve cell) is the basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system and consists of three main parts a cell body (soma) that contains the nucleus, an axon, and one or more dendrites. A distinction is made between the terms neuron and nerve where a neuron is a single cell consisting of three parts (one of which is an axon), whereas a nerve is a bundle of many neural axons cf., Waller's law - formulated by the English physician physiologist Augustus V. Waller...

Operationalism Doctrine Of In

The 1920s, the American philosopher of science Percy W. Bridgman (1882-1961) advanced the logical positivist viewpoint (i.e., the rejection of metaphysics, theology, and ethics as meaningless areas of study, and the suggestion that the only valid propositions are those consisting of elementary propositions that are empirically verifiable) and, in this context, the doctrine of operationalism refers to the requirement that all theoretical terms in science (i.e., those that do not refer to some...

Organismic Theorymodel

ORGANIZATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS THEORY. The branch of applied psychology called organizational industrial psychology covers various areas such as industrial, military, economic, and personnel psychology and researches problems of tests and measurements, organizational behavior, personnel practices, human engineering factors, and the effects of work, fatigue, pay, satisfaction, and efficiency. In the present context of theory, the term organization is defined as a complex social system made up...

Mental Laws Of Association

See MIND MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF. MENTAL SELF-GOVERNMENT THEORY. See INTELLIGENCE, THEORIES LAWS OF. MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT. This phenomenon was first studied quantitatively by the American-based Polish psychologist Robert B. Zajonc (1923- ) in 1968, even though the effect was suggested initially much earlier both by the German philosopher psychologist Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887) in 1876, and the American philosopher psychologist William James (18421910) in 1890. The mere...

Exafference Principle Of

The terms exchange and social exchange refer to a model of social structure that is based on the principle that most social behavior is predicated in the individual's expectation that one's actions with respect to others will result in some type of commensurate return. Exchange theory is a body of theoretical work in sociology and social psychology that emphasizes the importance of the reward-cost interdependence of group members in shaping their social...

Parsimony Lawprinciple Of

Lloyd Morgan's Morgan's canon Occam's razor Occam's principle economy, principle of. The law of parsimony states that if two scientific propositions, or two theories, are equally tenable, the simpler one is to be preferred. Another name for this law is called Lloyd Morgan's canon in honor of the English zoologist physiologist Conway Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936). Morgan articulated the principle in 1894 (cf., the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt who anticipated Morgan's principle in the former's...

Ravens Progressive Matrices Theory See Intelligence Theorieslaws Of

See VISION SIGHT, THEORIES OF. REACTANCE THEORY. A common tendency in human behavior is to react against any attempted restrictions imposed on the individual. The term psychological reactance is defined as the motivational state aroused when a person perceives that a specific behav ioral freedom is threatened with elimination or is actually eliminated. Reactance theory (via Jack W. Brehm and Sharon S. Brehm) holds that under such conditions of threats to personal freedom,...

Olfactionsmell Theories Of

Several interesting things about olfaction in clude the ideas that much of one's perceptual processing of odors is unconscious, that it is very difficult to recall smells, and that it is difficult to name them. However, curiously, the experience of a particular smell at a particular moment can stimulate numerous memories, often highly emotional, of episodes in which that smell was present cf., Proust phenomenon effect - named after the French novelist Marcel Proust (1871-1922), refers to the...

Accommodation Lawprinciple

The concept of accommodation in psychology has a variety of meanings depending on the context in which it is used. In general terms, it refers to any movement or adjustment (physical or psychological) that is made to prepare the organism for some stimulus input. In the context of vision, it refers to the automatic adjustment process wherein the shape of the lens of the eye changes to focus on objects situated at different distances from the observer. The suspensory ligaments hold the lens...

Selfcategorization Theory

SELF-CONCEPT THEORY. self-psychology theory. Based on self-consistency theory, each individual is guided by his her own theory of reality that, in turn, consists of a self-theory and a world-theory cf., heliocentric theory and its influence on personal self-esteem or self-importance the theory is the Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus' (14731543) view of the solar system in which the universe is no longer seen to revolve around humans on Earth, but the Earth is only one planet rotating on its...

Piano Theory Of Hearing

PIDDINGTON'S COMPENSATORY HUMOR THEORY. The English anthropologist Ralph Piddington refers to his theoretical approach toward humor as the compensatory theory of humor, which is a concept derived from the relationship between elementary laughter and laughter at the ludicrous in which the principle of psychic compensation (i.e., a hypothesized mechanism by which one seeks to make up for a real or imagined psychological defect by developing or exaggerating a psychological strength) is invoked....

Natural Response Theory

This generalization, first proposed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the British biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (18231913) in 1858, asserts that of the range of inheritable variations of traits in a population, those that contribute to an individual's survival will be the ones that have the highest probability of being passed on to the next generation of individuals or organisms. Natural selection assumes that the contributions to succeeding...

Time Perception Theorieslaws

See TIME, THEORIES OF. TIME, THEORIES OF. To the psychologist, the concept of time refers to a dimension of consciousness by which one gives order to experiences. However, to the physicist, time is one of the three basic quantities (the other two are distance and mass) by which the universe is described in physical terms and, to the philosopher, time is a diversity of many other concepts, abstractions, and entities. In the area of cosmology (the science that seeks to achieve a...

Infant Attachment Theories

The English psychiatrist John Bowlby (19071990) introduced the term attachment into psychology and psychiatry, even though Sigmund Freud laid the foundation for theoretical attachment concepts by suggesting the cathexis (i.e., an investment or holding) of libidinal energy onto a love object in order to establish an emotional connection for behavioral stability and organization. Bowlby argued that attachment is an expression of the biology of a species that is exhibited by species-specific...

McNaughton Rulesprinciples

See IMPRESSION FORMATION, THEORIES OF. MEANING, THEORIES AND ASSESSMENT OF. The American psychologists Charles Egerton Osgood (1916-1991) and George John Suci (1925- ), and the Canadian-born American psychologist Percy Hyman Tannenbaum (1927- ), developed a popular paper-and-pencil measurement device called the semantic differential technique that attempts to assess quantitatively the affec-tive connotative meaning (signification) of words, as well as measuring attitudes...

Alexander Model Or Technique

The Australian actor physiotherapist Frederick Mathias Alexander (1869-1955) developed this technique for improving one's posture, breathing, and bodily movements. This physical model attempts to reduce stress, promotes mental well-being, and increases confidence in individuals who practice the method, and is especially popular among performing artists such as actors and musicians. Alexander developed his technique initially to deal with a voice difficulty he had as a young Shakespearean actor...

Cellular Automaton Model

The Hungarian-born American mathematician John von Neumann (1903-1957) described the cellular automaton model, a mathematical model of self-replication and destruction that is represented, typically, by a checkerboard of either fixed or infinite dimensions - each cell of which has a finite number of states (including, usually, a quiescent empty state), and a finite set of neighboring cells that may influence its state. In the model, the pattern of changes are determined by transition rules that...

Paradigm Of Associative Inhibition See Mullerschumann Law

In 1962, the American historian philosopher of science Thomas S. Kuhn (1922-1996) presented his doctrine of the paradigm shift in science. In general, a paradigm is a model, pattern, or diagram of the functions and interrelationships of a process, and includes a conceptual framework within which theories in a specific research area are organized and constructed. In particular, Kuhn proposed that systematic patterns to organize and conduct research within different...

Emotions Theorieslaws Of

Term emotion derives from the Latin emovere, meaning to excite, to move, to agitate, or to stir up. Historically, the term emotion has defied exact definition, even though it is widely used as if implicit agreement existed, and most textbook authors employ it as the title of a chapter, allowing the material presented to be a substitute for a precise definition. Despite the long history of the concept of emotion, which goes back to the early Greek philosophers, as well as to Descartes' analysis...

Batesons Vibratory Theory

This theoretical speculation, often employed in psychological statistics (e.g., Hays, 1963 1994), indicates the relation among various conditional probabilities. Bayes' theorem is named in honor of Thomas Bayes (1702-1761), an 18th century English clergyman and mathematician who did early work in probability and decision theory. Although Bayes wrote on theology, he is best known for his two mathematical works, Introduction to the Doctrine of Fluxions (1736) - a defense of the...

Extinction Of Type S Law Of

SKINNER'S DESCRIPTIVE BEHAVIOR OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY. EXTINCTION THEORY. See AMSEL'S HYPOTHESIS THEORY CAPALDI'S THEORY GUTHRIE'S THEORY OF BEHAVIOR. EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION THEORY. See PARANORMAL PHENOMENON AND THEORY. EYE MOVEMENT THEORY. See APPARENT MOVEMENT, PRINCIPLES THE- ORIES OF CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY OF PERCEPTION MUNSTERBERG'S THEORY OF PERCEPTUAL FLUCTUATIONS. EYE PLACEMENT PRINCIPLE. See GESTALT THEORY LAWS. EYEWITNESS MISINFORMATION EFFECT. misinformation effect. The...

Drainagediversion Hypothesis

A dream may be defined as a more or less coherent imagery sequence that ordinarily occurs during sleep or, simply, as imagery during sleep. Before 19th and 20th century scientific investigations took place, a popular dream theory was that they were divine messages with prophetic intent where the messages were coded, and the decoding task was performed by persons with a gift for dream interpretation (such as tribal leaders, chiefs, or witch doctors in uncivilized primitive...

Ranks Theory Of Personality

The Austrian psychoanalyst Otto Rank (18841939) formulated a theory of personality that may be characterized as an intrapsychic conflict model where all functioning of the individual is expressive of the dual tendency to minimize both the fear of life and the fear of death. According to Rank, life is equivalent to the processes of separation and individualiza-tion, whereas death is the opposite processes of union and fusion. The two opposing fears of life and death are experienced as...

General Theory Of Behavior In

His search for a general theory of behavior, the American social behavioral scientist Richard D. Alexander (1975) offers the desideratum that such a future theory must correspond with current knowledge concerning evolutionary theory, and he suggests that a useful, predictive, and general theory of behavior is unlikely to be constructed by building upward toward greater complexity starting from the engram, the reflex, or some other simple theoretical unit of activity. Alexander describes several...

Labelingdeviance Theory

Labeling theory of deviant behavior, also called societal-reaction theory, postulates an interaction between individuals and their social environment where society both defines and produces deviance. That is, labeling theory focuses on society's reaction to personal behavior as a fundamental aspect of a deviance-producing process. Whereas other models of deviance may place the source of deviance solely within the individual or solely within society, the labeling theory emphasizes the...

Consolidationhypothe

See FORGETTING MEMORY, THE-ORIES OF. CONSTANCY HYPOTHESIS. perceptual constancy. This hypothesis, as employed in the area of perception psychology, states that perceived objects tend to remain constant in size where their distance from the observer (and, thus, the size of their retinal images) varies (cf., theory of misapplied constancy - states that the inappropriate interpretation of cues in the perception of certain illusions is the result of the observer's having previously...

Selyes Theorymodel Of Stress

The Austrian-born Canadian endocrinologist and psychologist Hans Selye (1907-1982) was one of the first modern psychologists to examine systematically the construct of stress and its effects on the organism, although medical and theoretical interest in stress goes back to the Greek physician Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.). In the 1920s, the American physiologist Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945) verified for stress theory that the stress response is part of a unified mind-body system, where a variety of...

Vierordts Law Of Time Estimation See Vierordts Laws

There are two separate usages or versions subsumed under the same eponymic principle called Vierordt's law, both of which are attributable to the German physiologist Karl von Vierordt (18181884). One usage is related to the study of sensory thresholds, and the other usage refers to the area of time perception. In the first case, Vierordt's law is the proposition that the more moveable a part of the body is, the lower is the two-point threshold of the skin over it. Thus, the...

Decay Theory Of Memory

DECISION-MAKING THEORIES. rational choice theory. Decision-making research, generally regarded as a subarea within the field of cognitive psychology, investigates the issue of how organisms make choices between alternatives where the major focus is on human decision-making. Decision theories and choice behavior theories seek to explain decision-making and vary from the highly formal mathematical approaches based on game theory i.e., the decision-making process that takes account of the actions,...

Gamma Movement Effect

APPARENT MOVEMENT, PRINCIPLES THEORIES OF. GARCIA EFFECT. The American psychologist John Garcia (1917-1986) and his colleagues conducted extensive work in the area of learning, specifically on classically conditioned taste aversion. The Garcia effect (also called bait-shyness effect, toxicosis effect, flavor-aversion effect, conditioned food taste aversion, food avoidance learning conditioning, taste-aversion effect, and learned taste flavor aversion), refers to an acquired syndrome in which an...

Freuds Theory Of Personality

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) had early associations with the Austrian physician Josef Breuer (1842-1925) and the French physician Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), who gave him an appreciation of the value of the talking cure, catharsis, and hypnosis for treating hysterical neuroses and, also, of the sexual etiology of neuroses. These experiences with Breuer and Charcot served as the basis for the development of the Freudian theory of personality and the method called psychoanalysis, formally...

Dualroute Theory Of Reading

One of the most influential current theories of word processing and reading is called the dual-route theory (cf., dual-route cascaded model of reading Bates, Castles, Coltheart, Gillespie, Wright, & Martin, 2004) which proposes the existence of two functionally independent mechanisms of processing words one involves access to lexical knowledge, and the other involves access to nonlexical grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. Thus, in the strong version of dual-route theory, it is held that in...

Informal Behaviorist Theory

INFORMATION INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY. In general, information-processing (IP) theory is concerned with the way organisms attend to, select, and internalize information and how the information is used subsequently to make decisions and direct their behavior. Information theory was developed independently in the late 1940s and early 1950s by the English statistician Ronald A. Fisher (1890-1962) and the American mathematicians Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) and Claude E. Shannon (1916- ) and was...

Pribrams Holographic Model

Pribram's holonomic brain theory holographic brain theory. The Austrian-born American physician and neuropsychologist Karl Harry Pribram (1919- ) developed a holographic model of memory (holographic memory) constituting a hypothetical concept of the neurophysiological aspects of memory that resemble a hologram having a three-dimensional feature. In photography, the term holography refers to a method of producing three-dimensional images by using light wave interference patterns, and has been...

Jungs Theory Of Personality

The Swiss-born psychiatrist psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) first met Sigmund Freud in 1907 and was soon named Freud's successor (my crown prince) by Freud, but by 1914 Jung and Freud parted company - never to see one another again -essentially due to theoretical differences concerning the interpretation of psychoanalysis, the influence of determinism on personality (Freud asserted that personality was basically set or determined in the first few years of childhood Jung maintained...

Personalityjob Fit Theory

ORGANIZATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS THEORY. PERSONALITY THEORIES. A theory of personality is a set of unproven speculations about various aspects of human behavior that often invites argument from research-oriented psychologists who decry the lack of quantification and the proliferation of untestable hypotheses found in most personality theories, whereas personality theorists, in turn, criticize the laboratory approach toward understanding behavior as being too artificial and trivial. C. Hall and...

Herrnsteins Matching Law

Matching law was formulated by the American experimental psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein (1930-1994) who observed and recorded the behavior of pigeons pecking two keys for food reinforcement delivered on concurrent variable interval (i.e., an average, non-fixed amount of elapsed time) schedules. The pigeons yielded response curves that con formed closely to a predicted line of perfect matching where response ratios are matched to ratios of obtained reinforcements. The matching law is defined...

Barnard Psychology

Astonishing hypothesis ASTROLOGY, THEORY OF. This tenacious, and unsubstantiated, theory is based on the belief that celestial bodies, in particular, the stars, have an influence on human behavior and personality (cf., Barnum effect). Historically, astrology is primitive astronomy but, whereas the latter is now a legitimate scientific endeavor, the former is considered as a pseudoscience founded in the notion that the positions of the moon, sun, and stars affect human...

Marxist Psychological Theory

The American psychologist Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-1970) advanced a holistic, organismic, dynamic, and humanistic viewpoint of personality that has features similar to the theories of Kurt Goldstein and Andras Angyal. However, where Goldstein's and Angyal's theories are derived from the study of mentally unhealthy and brain-damaged individuals, Maslow's theory of personality derives from the study of creative, healthy, and self-actualized persons....

Motoric Reproduction Process Hypothesis See Motor Learning Process Theories

In his emphasis on the role offeedback in movement regulation, the American psychologist J. A. Adams (1971) gave a new direction to the topic of motor learning and initiated his closed loop theory, which was developed on the basis of motor-learning em pirical laws employing simple and slow movements of linear positioning. The critical aspects of Adams' theory rest upon the following the feedback production capacity the comparison of the latter to a correctness...

Secondary Laws Of Association

SECONDARY MEMORY. See SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY, THEORIES OF. SECONDARY REINFORCEMENT, PRINCIPLE OF. See REINFORCEMENT THEORY SKINNER'S DESCRIPTIVE BE-HAVIOR OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY. SECURE-BASE PHENOMENON. See DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY. SEDUCTION THEORY. The Austrian neurologist psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (18561939) proposed a seduction theory in 1895 (but abandoned it after a few years), in which the cause of neuroses was thought to be traceable to...

Conditioning Of Type S

See SKINNER'S DESCRIPTIVE BEHAV-IOR AND OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY. CONDUCT, LAWS OF. In 1937, the versatile Swiss psychologist Edouard Cla-parede (1873-1940) formulated the following 13 functional laws of conduct in an attempt to give psychology the back-bone it purportedly needs as a scientific endeavor law of need - a need tends to evoke reactions proper to its satisfaction law of interest - all conduct is dictated by interest, the goal being to secure objects and positions that attract...

Inhibitory Potential Principle

See HULL'S LEARNING THEORY INHIBITION, LAWS OF PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES, LAWS, AND THEORIES SKINNER'S OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY SPENCE'S THEORY. INITIAL VALUE(S), LAW OF. Wilder's law of initial value(s). The Romanian-born Canadian American pharmacist neuropsychia-trist Joseph Wilder (1896-1993) originally formulated in 1931 the law of initial values (LIV) which is an empirical and statistical rule that may be stated as follows the response to agents stimulating the function...

Ecological Systems Model

See CONDUCT, LAWS OF LEAST EFFORT, PRINCIPLE OF. ECONOMY, PRINCIPLE OF. See PARSIMONY, LAW PRINCIPLE OF. EDUCATIONAL THEORY. See HER-BART'S DOCTRINE OF APPERCEPTION LEARNING THEORIES LAWS MIND AND MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING, THORN-DIKE'S THEORY OF. EFFECT, LAW OF. empirical law of effect Thorndike's law of effect law of psychological hedonism. This is one of the major principles of the American psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike's...

Tipofthetongue Phenomenon

TITCHENER'S CONTEXT THEORY OF MEANING. See MEANING, THEORIES ASSESSMENT OF. TOLMAN'S THEORY. The American psychologist Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959) formulated a purposive behavioristic learning theory - also called the sign-gestalt theory and expectancy theory - that emphasizes the cognitive nature of learning (cf., the stimulus-response learning theories of E. L. Thorndike, E. R. Guthrie, B. F. Skinner, and C. L. Hull). In his theory, Tolman is concerned with concepts such as knowledge,...

Lifespan Development Theories See Aging Theories Of

See ADLER'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY HISTORICAL MODELS OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. LIFE, THEORIES OF. The concept of life may be defined as matter having a type of organization, and having the properties of self-perpetuation (for a longer or shorter time) and of reproduction in some form. It is also distinguished by certain characteristics des-cribbed as vital properties of living matter (such as nutrition involving processes of anabolism and catabolism, and irritability...

Granular Theory See Life Theories Of

The theoretical relationship between the features of one's handwriting and his her personality or character has been studied extensively in modern times by the French abbot Jean Hippolyte Michon (1806-1881) and by the German philosopher psychologist Ludwig Klages (1872-1956). Based on analyses of the characteristics and variables in personal handwriting - such as modulations in size of letters, layout, connectedness, slant, regularity, speed, forms, shading, and...

Reality Monitoring Hypothesis

See SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY, THEORIES OF. REALITY PRINCIPLE. See FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. REAL-SIMULATOR MODEL. See HYPNOSIS HYPNOTISM, THEORIES OF. REASONED ACTION AND PLANNED BEHAVIOR THEORIES. This speculation, formulated by the American psychologist Martin Fishbein (1936- ) and the Polish-born American psychologist Icek Ajzen (1942- ), concerns the relationship between attitudes and behavior, and states that a target behavior is determined by behavioral intentions that, in...

Equivalence Principle

The German-born American psychoanalyst Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994) attempted to revive the structure of psychoanalysis after the death of Sigmund Freud in 1939. Erikson considered himself to be a Freudian psychoanalyst in spite of some opinions that he fell outside the Freudian tradition. Erikson helped to establish the theoretical approach called ego psychology, along with the Austrian-born American psychoanalyst Heinz Hartmann (1894-1970), the German...

Dominatormodulator Theory

DONDERS' LAW AND DONDERS' REACTION-TIME TECHNIQUES. The Dutch physiologist ophthalmologist Franciscus Cornells Donders (1818-1889) formulated this principle of visual fixation in 1846, according to which every position of the lines of regard in relation to the head corresponds to a definite, invariable angle of torsion of the eyes, regardless of the path by which that position has been reached. Another version of Donders' law states that the position of the eyes in looking at an object is...

Thermal Sensitivity Theories

See NAFE'S VASCULAR THEORY OF CUTANEOUS SENSITIVITY. THERMODYNAMICS, LAWS OF. These laws, originating in the physical sciences but often invoked in explaining psychological phenomena, refer to the study of principles governing the interrelationships between heat, mechanical work, and other forms of energy and their influence on the behavior of systems. The first law of thermodynamics, also called the law of the conservation of energy when referring to situations in which heat transfer takes...

Work Adjustment Theory Of

See WORK CAREER OCCUPATION, THEORIES OF. WORK CAREER OCCUPATION, THEORIES OF. The psychological study of work, career, and occupational factors ranges from theories of decision-making in career development to human engineering human factors, work fatigue efficiency, applications research, and work motivation theories. Theories of career development fall into one of several classes trait-oriented, systems-oriented, personality-oriented, or developmental. Although no single approach seems to...

Defensive Techniques Theory

See GOOD BREAST OBJECT AND BAD BREAST OBJECT THEORY. DEFINITIONAL THEORY. See CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT FORMATION, THEORIES OF PROTOTYPE THEORY. DEGENERACY THEORY. See SEXUAL ORIENTATION THEORIES. DEGENERACY THEORY OF GENIUS. See LOMBROSIAN THEORY. DEGRADATION, LAW OF. See WEBER'S LAW. DEGREES OF CONSCIOUSNESS THEORY. See HERBART'S DOCTRINE OF APPERCEPTION. DEINDIVIDUATION THEORY. The term deindividuation refers to the loss of one's sense of individuality during which the person behaves with...

Imageless Thought Theory

WUNDT'S THEORIES DOCTRINES PRINCIPLES. IMAGEN THEORY. See SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY, THEORIES OF. IMAGERY LAW OF COMPENSATION RIVALRY. See IMAGERY MENTAL IMAGERY, THEORIES OF. IMAGERY MENTAL IMAGERY, THEORIES OF. In the context of cognitive experiences, the term image refers to a mental representation of an earlier sensory stimulus or experience and represents a less vivid copy of that event cf., imagery law of compensation rivalry - proposed by the English psychologist Charles W....

Cognitive Style Models

Construct of cognitive learning style may be defined as the relatively stable individual preferences for perceptual and conceptual organization and categorization of the external environment (cf., the early laws principles of abstraction Moore, 1910). The terms cognitive style and cognition have been introduced and reintroduced into the psychological literature over a period of time extending back to the German psychologists at the turn of the 20th century. Also, the Swiss psychologist Carl...

Attributionattitude Boomerang Effect See Attribution Theory

The Austrian-American psychologist Fritz Heider (18961988) was preeminent in the formulation of balance theory in the study of attitudes (i.e., people are motivated to maintain balance, harmony, or cognitive consonance among their attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs cf., state of imbalance, disharmony, or cognitive dissonance) and of attribution theory in the study of social perception that originated in social psychology and is a general approach for describing the ways...

Alzheimers Disease Theory In

1907, the German physician neurologist Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) first described the brain lesions associated with the degenerative brain disease, now called Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and emotional psychological instability, and is accompanied by postmortem evidence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (insoluble nerve fibers). Some theorists speculate that the amyloid plaques (insoluble beta-amyloid proteins) are responsible for the symp toms...

Hormonal Theory Of Hunger

See COLOR VISION, THEORIES LAWS OF. HORNEY'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. The German-born American physician and psychiatrist Karen Clementine Danielson Horney (1885-1952) was trained originally in the method of Freudian psychoanalysis theory but she broke away eventually from the standard Freudian orthodoxy over the issue of female sexuality. Where Freud emphasized the concepts of penis envy, jealousy of the male, libido theory, and feelings of genital inferiority as determinants in...

Rumor Transmission Theory A

Rumor may be defined as an unconfirmed message passed from one person to another in face-to-face interaction (cf., children's game of Gossip or Chinese Whispers) that refers to an object, person, or situation rather than to an idea or theory. Thus, the notions of gossip, grapevine, hearsay, tattle-tale, and scuttlebutt (along with the snowball effect - the increased magnification of material upon the retelling of it) are included in rumor transmission. The American sociologist H. Taylor Buckner...

Hobbes Psychological Theory

The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), often referred to as the founder of British empiricism (cf., Locke's psychological theory), asserted in his primary principle of psychology that all knowledge is derived through sensations. By suggesting that nothing exists internal or external to the individual (except matter and motion), Hobbes grounded his psychology firmly in the philosophical positions called materialism and mechanism (cf., Brennan, 1991). The materialistic approach...

Growthactualization Theory

See MASLOW'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF. GROWTH PRINCIPLE. See ROGERS' THEORY OF PERSONALITY. GRUNER'S GAME THEORY OF HUMOR. The theoretical proposition advanced by the American humor researcher Charles R. Gruner (1931- ) is that all humor - including, in particular, puns (which involves the game of word play) - is actually a disguised succession of games that are there to be won. The very notion of games implies fun, leisure, entertainment, recreation, and affable human...

Early Greek And Later Philosophical Theories Of Time

Greek philosophers in the sixth- and fifth-centuries B.C. identified dual aspects of time (being - the continuity aspect of Parmenides and becoming - the transcience aspect of Heraclitus) that, to this day, are concepts that are unreconciled. According to these early philosophers, time extends continuously from the past to the future (the being aspect), and things change in time (the becoming aspect). In the history of language, words for time are long preceded by words for past, present, and...