Hobbes Psychological Theory

The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), often referred to as the founder of British empiricism (cf., Locke's psychological theory), asserted in his primary principle of psychology that all knowledge is derived through sensations. By suggesting that nothing exists internal or external to the individual (except matter and motion), Hobbes grounded his psychology firmly in the philosophical positions called materialism and mechanism (cf., Brennan, 1991). The materialistic approach...

Cognitive Style Models

Construct of cognitive learning style may be defined as the relatively stable individual preferences for perceptual and conceptual organization and categorization of the external environment (cf., the early laws principles of abstraction Moore, 1910). The terms cognitive style and cognition have been introduced and reintroduced into the psychological literature over a period of time extending back to the German psychologists at the turn of the 20th century. Also, the Swiss psychologist Carl...

Activationarousal Theory

Term activation theory was most prominently used by the American physiological psychologist Donald B. Lindsley 1907-2003 as a working theory for emotion. The concept activate means not only to make active but also to render capable of reacting. At one end of a continuum of activation is a strong reaction to stimulation, and at the other end is the condition of quiescence, sleep, or death, with little or no reaction to stimulation. The activation arousal theory developed from work in the area of...

Motivational Hedonic Theory

According to American psychologist Jacob Levine 1969 , theories of humor that are based largely on experimental evidence have employed, generally, three basic research models to explain motivational i.e., goal-directed, drive-energized behaviors sources of humor cognitive-perceptual theory involves the resolution of incongruities behavior theory emphasizes the stimulus-response aspects of learning and the reduction of basic drives and Freudian psychoanalytic...

Ranks Theory Of Personality

The Austrian psychoanalyst Otto Rank (18841939) formulated a theory of personality that may be characterized as an intrapsychic conflict model where all functioning of the individual is expressive of the dual tendency to minimize both the fear of life and the fear of death. According to Rank, life is equivalent to the processes of separation and individualiza-tion, whereas death is the opposite processes of union and fusion. The two opposing fears of life and death are experienced as...

Darwins Theory Of Emotions

Charles Darwin speculated that in prehistoric times - before communication that used words was common - one's ability to communicate with facial expressions increased an individual's chances of survival. Facial expressions could convey the various important messages of threat, submission, happiness, anger, and so on. Darwin's theory of emotions holds that the basic emotions demonstrated by facial expressions are a universal language among all humans no matter what their cultural setting. Today,...

Schizophrenia Theories Of

Term schizophrenia is a general label for a number of psychotic disorders with various behavioral, emotional, and cognitive features. The term was originated by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler 1857-1939 in 1911, who offered it as a replacement for the term dementia praecox i.e., precocious madness deterioration insanity . In its literal meaning, schizophrenia is a splitting of the mind, a connotation reflecting a dissociation or separation between the functions of feeling emotion, on one...

Izards Theory Of Emotions

Izards 1923- approach to the study of emotions is influenced strongly by the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin 1809-1882 , who argued that certain basic patterns of emotional expression are part of one's biological inheritance. Such patterns of emotion evolved because of their high survival value in giving humans mutual and beneficial systems of communication. For example, humans - including nonhuman animals such as dogs and baboons - grimace and bare their...