Apertural Hypothesis See MC

DOUGALL'S HORMIC OR INSTINCT THEORY/DOCTRINE.

APOLLONIAN/DIONYSIAN DISTINCTION. The German philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) made a theoretical distinction - often employed in psychological discussions of personality and temperament - between the terms Apollonian and Dionysian in his philosophy where the former term (named after Apollo, the Greek god of light, music, poetry, prophesy and healing) refers to rational, controlled, and serene behavior and relates to static qualities of reason, form, sobriety, and harmony; and the latter term (named after Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and revelry) refers to uncontrolled, wild, sensuous, and spontaneous behavior and relates to dynamic/creative qualities of irrationality, spontaneity, and rejection of discipline. See also PERSONALITY THEORIES. REFERENCE

Nietzsche, F. W. (1887/1935). Beyond good and evil. Chicago: Regency.

A POSTERIORI AND A PRIORI DISTINCTION. Use of the theoretically-related terms a posteriori and a priori originated with the medieval scholastic philosophers of the 14th and 15th centuries, and were popularized later by the 17th century philosophers Gott-fried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) and Rene Descartes (1596-1650). A posteriori (Latin for "what comes after") refers to propositions, concepts, or arguments that originate in, and progress from, observation or experience ("empiricism"), whereas a priori (Latin for "what comes before") refers to propositions, concepts, or arguments that originate in, and progress from, theoretical inference or deduction ("rationalism"). Some philosophers (e.g., the British Empiricists John Locke, Bishop George Berkeley, and David Hume) reflect the a posteriori orientation, whereas other philosophers (e.g., Plato, and Leibniz) indicate the a priori viewpoint in their philosophical systems. Still other philosophers (e.g., the German "idealist" Immanuel Kant) argued that experience and observation (the a posteriori approach), in themselves, presuppose an inferential (deductive) type of knowledge base (the a priori perspective) Such philosophical distinctions, such as that between the terms a posteriori and a priori, are reflected in modern theoretical and methodological orientations in psychology. For example, the a posteriori orientation is indicated in the experimental psychology of learning where the researcher (e.g., B. F. Skinner) initially collects empirical facts and data that may be used at a later time to describe (inductively developed) hypotheses, whereas the a priori orientation is indicated in cases where the researcher (e.g., C. L. Hull) initially forms rational hypotheses as the basis of definitions and principles that have already been set up or assumed. Also, the two terms are reflected in the area of psychological statistics where an a priori test is a "planned" statistical procedure used to test for significance of individual comparisons, whereas an a posteriori test is an "after-the-fact" statistical procedure ("post hoc test") that is introduced after the data have already been collected and scrutinized. The a posteriori fallacy (Reber, 1995) refers to the fallacious conclusion that some event Y was caused by some other event X on the grounds that an "after-the-fact" analysis of one's data showed that Y did, indeed, occur after X (also called "data snooping" or "fishing expeditions"). However, in fact, such a logical reasoning process only suggests that X actually may have caused Y, and such a retrospective analysis, in itself, is insufficient to make a "cause-effect" conclusion. See also EMPIRICIST VERSUS NATIVIST THEORIES. REFERENCE

Reber, A. S. (1995). The Penguin dictionary of psychology. New York: Penguin Books.

APPARENT MOVEMENT, PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF. The phenomenon of apparent movement refers to the subjective visual perception of movement in the absence of any real or objective physical motion. Common types of apparent movement include the phi phenomenon/movement, the autokinetic effect, and the aftereffects of seen movement. Other kinds of apparent movement are alpha-, beta-, delta-, epsilon-, gamma-, induced-, and stroboscopic movement. The phi phenomenon/movement of stroboscopic movement may be observed when two adjacent stimulus lights are flashed in rapid succession. If the interstimulus period is too long, the lights appear to go on and off separately. If the interstimulus period is too short, the lights appear to flash at the same time. When the interstimulus period is about 30-200 milliseconds, however, one gets the sensation of a light moving from one location to another location (stroboscopic movement is the basis for the effect of motion seen on television and motion pictures). The autokinetic effect [first described by the German physiologist and psychologist Hermann Aubert (1826-1892)] refers to movement that seems to occur when a stationary object is viewed against a dark or ill-defined background, and where the stationary object appears to move after looking at it for a few min utes. Aftereffects of seen movement may occur when an individual stares for a few minutes at some continuous motion of an object in one direction and then shifts the gaze to a different surface (such as looking at a waterfall for a few minutes and then looking away to a textured surface where the surface now appears to be going in the opposite, or upward, direction). Induced movement refers to the illusion of movement where a visual frame of reference is actually moving in one direction (such as clouds moving across the moon), and a stationary object (such as the moon) subsequently seems to move in the opposite direction. Alpha movement occurs when there appears to be a change of size in parts of a figure that are exposed in succession. Beta movement refers to the illusion of movement when differently sized, or positioned, objects are exposed in succession. Delta movement is the apparent movement of a light stimulus to a darker stimulus after successive exposure when the variables of stimulus size, distance, and interstimulus interval are controlled. Epsilon movement is the visual perception of movement when a white line viewed against a black background is changed so that one now views a black line against a white background. Gamma movement refers to the apparent contraction and expansion of a figure that is shown suddenly (or is withdrawn) or a figure that is exposed to sudden illumination changes. Various theories of apparent movement have been developed and described, and include the inference theory (where one actually sees only the initial and terminal positions and infers that the object must have moved); the eye-movement theory (which emphasizes that the eyes objectively move across from the initial stimulus position to the final position, and where eye movement itself contributes to the sensation of motion); and the brain-field theory (which suggests that the retina, or the visual cortex, is actually stimulated in the region lying between the initial and the terminal positions of the stimuli). There appears to be no generally accepted theory of apparent movement except, perhaps, for the potential development of some future novel theory that would regard perception as a type of response to the incoming sensory stimulation and that subsequently applies the principle of stimulus generalization to the ul timate explanation of movement. Thus, if the stimuli that are received are sufficiently similar to those that were received from real movement, then the perceptual response would likely be the same. C. Graham (1965) suggests that new analyses and investigations in the field of perceptual/apparent movement would lead to needed theoretical improvements. See also ALIASING AND STROBOSCOPIC PHENOM-ENON; GENERALIZATION, PRINCIPLES OF; KORTE'S LAWS; THREE-SYSTEMS THEORY OF MOTION PERCEPTION; VISION/SIGHT, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Vierordt, K. (1876). Die bewegungsempfindung. Zeitschrift fur Biologisch, 12, 226-240.

Aubert, H. (1886). Die bewegungsempfindung. Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie, 39, 347-370. Wertheimer, M. (1912). Experimentelle studien uber das sehen von bewegung. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 61, 161265.

Higginson, G. (1926). The visual apprehension of movement under successive retinal excitations. American Journal of Psychology, 37, 63-115. Guilford, J., & Helson, H. (1929). Eye-movements and the phi phenomenon. American Journal of Psychology, 41, 595-606.

Neff, W. (1936). A critical investigation of the visual apprehension of movement. American Journal of Psychology, 48, 1-42.

Kolers, P. (1963). Some differences between real and apparent visual movement. Vision Research, 3, 191-206. Graham, C. (1965). Perception of movement.

In C. Graham (Ed.), Vision and vis-ualperception. New York: Wiley.

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