Arpeggio Paradox See Audition Hearing Theories Of

ARROW'S PARADOX/IMPOSSIBILITY THEOREM. The American economist Kenneth J. Arrow (1921- ) formulated this theorem showing that no social-choice (e.g., a voting system) function can guarantee to aggregate the individual preferences of a social group into a collective preference ranking so as to satisfy the following four "criteria of fairness": an ordering is always produced; universally-shared preferences are reflected; the outcome does not depend on preferences for ir relevant options; and each individual can influence the outcome (i.e., "non-dictator-ship"). Thus, Arrow's impossibility theorem refers to the modeling of any democratic process where one would like a fixed procedure for "aggregating" the preferences of a group of individuals into an overall ordering; and Arrow's result shows that this is not possible, in general, for a group larger than two individuals if the procedure is required to fulfill these four "criteria of fairness." The proof of Arrow's paradox rests on the profile of individual preferences invoking "Condorcet's paradox of intransitive preferences" - named after the French philosopher and mathematician Marie Antoine Condorcet (1743-1794) who enunciated it in 1785 - which deals with the complexity of voting and choices, by which a final choice is made by the rejection of all other alternatives in a series of paired contests; Condorcet noted that majority voting is the best voting rule/system when only two people can vote. Arrow's paradox shows that any social-choice function that satisfies the first three "criteria of fairness" necessarily violates the fourth criterion and, as a consequence, results in a "dictatorial" situation or outcome. See also DECISION-MAKING THEORIES; EXCHANGE AND SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY. REFERENCE

Arrow, K. J. (1951). Alternative approaches to the theory of choice in risk-taking situations. Econometrica, 19, 417426.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. See CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL.

How To Win Your War Against Anxiety Disorders

How To Win Your War Against Anxiety Disorders

Tips And Tricks For Relieving Anxiety... Fast Everyone feels anxious sometimes. Whether work is getting to us or we're simply having hard time managing all that we have to do, we can feel overwhelmed and worried that we might not be able to manage it all. When these feelings hit, we don't have to suffer. By taking some simple steps, you can begin to create a calmer attitude, one that not only helps you feel better, but one that allows you the chance to make better decisions about what you need to do next.

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