Balance Principles And Theory

OF. See ATTRIBUTION THEORY; FES-TINGER'S COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY.

BALDWIN EFFECT. The American developmental psychologist James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) formulated a refined Darwinian genetic psychology. Baldwin's chief goal was to explain the adaptive correspondence of mental life and thoughts to material things, which he argued evolves through the formation and transformation of habits via the interacting processes of assimilation and imitation. Baldwin held a functional view of mind as sensorimotor process and emphasized the importance of intentional action as the mechanism of selection in the development of mental faculties. In his approach, Baldwin combined Darwinian and Lamarckian ideas of evolution to formulate his own sophisticated hypothesis of organic selection, which accounts for the course and direction of growth. Baldwin's notion of organic selection came to be known as the Baldwin effect. Baldwin also applied his model of intentional action to the moral, religious, and social aspects of human behavior where cycles of suggestion and imitation are mechanisms by which individuals develop socially, and where social progress is viewed as social selection along with the transmission and conservation of adaptive values. In some of his writings, Baldwin refers to numerous laws that occur in psychology. For example, he describes laws of: nervous accommodation, habit, inheritance, evolution, motives, contradictory representation, reversion to type, mental dynamogenesis, attention, voluntary interest, imagination, association, associative reproduction, correlation, prefer ence in associations, identity in judgment, contiguity, contradiction, partial effect, sensation, passive imagination, sufficient reason, habit, and thought. Thus, Baldwin, like many other early psychologists who were schooled and grounded in mental philosophy, seems to demonstrate a penchant for a rather generous, liberal, and nonrigorous or noncritical use of the term law in describing various psychological phenomena. See also ATTENTION, LAWS, PRINCIPLES, AND THEORIES OF; DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY; DYNAMOGENESIS, LAW OF. REFERENCES

Baldwin, J. M. (1894). Mental development in the child and in the race. New York: Macmillan.

Baldwin, J. M. (Ed.) (1901-1905). Dictionary of philosophy and psychology. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan. Baldwin, J. M. (1902). Development and evolution. New York: A.M.S. Press.

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Aspergers Answers Revealed

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