Bertrands Box Paradox

THREE-DOOR GAME SHOW PROBLEM.

BETA MOVEMENT EFFECT. See APPARENT MOVEMENT, PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF.

BEZOLD-BRUCKE EFFECT, PHENOMENON, OR HUE SHIFT. This phenomenon, first described between 1873 and 1878, is credited to the German meteorologist Wilhelm von Bezold (1837-1907) and the German physiologist Ernst Wilhelm von Brucke (1819-1892), who found that the hue of spectral colors of objects changes with the level of illumination. The effect applies to bluish reds and bluish greens, where the reds and greens are perceived as bluer with increased illumination, and to yellowish reds and yellowish greens, where the reds and greens are perceived as yellower with increased illumination. However, the Bezold-Brucke effect does not occur with the "purer" reds, greens, blues, and yellows. The phenomenon is usually obtained as an aspect of the negative afterimage produced by retinal adaptation. See also ADAPTATION, PRINCIPLES/LAWS OF; AFTERIMAGE LAW; COLOR VISION, THEORIES/LAWS OF; PURKINJE EFFECT AND PHENOMENON/SHIFT. REFERENCES

Brucke, E. (1851). Untersuchungen uber subjektive farben. Poggendorf Annales der Physiologie und Chemie, 84, 418-452.

Brucke, E. (1884). Vorlesungen uber physiologie. Vol. 2. Vienna: Braumueller.

BICHAT, LAW OF. The French physician, pathologist, and histologist/anatomist Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802) proposed the principle that there are two main body systems, which are in inverse relationship regarding the development of ontogenetic evolution, called the vegetative and the animal, with the vegetative system providing for assimilation and augmentation of mass (anabolism) and the animal system providing for the transformation and expenditure of energy (catabolism). Bichat's main contribution to medicine and physiology was his perception that the diverse organs of the body contain particular tissues or membranes, and he described 21 such membranes, including connective, muscle, and nerve tissues. Bichat maintained that in the case of disease in an organ, generally not the whole organ but only certain tissues are affected. Bichat did not use the microscope, which he distrusted, so his tissue analyses did not include any acknowledgement of their cellular structure. Bichat established the significance and centrality of the study of tissues ("histology"), and his lasting importance lay in simplifying anatomy and physiology by showing how the complex structures of organs may be examined in terms of their elementary tissues. Bichat's work, done with great intensity during the last years of his short life (he performed over 600 postmortems), had much influence in medical science, and he formed a bridge between the earlier organ pathology of Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) and the later cell pathology of Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (1821-1902). See also GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY. REFERENCE

Bichat, M. F. X. (1812). Anatomie generale appliquee a la physiologie et a la medecine. 2nd ed. Paris: Brosson.

BID WELL'S GHOST. See PURKINJE EFFECT/PHENOMENON/SHIFT.

BIEDERMAN'S THEORY. See PATTERN, OBJECT RECOGNITION THEORY.

BIFACTORIAL THEORY OF CONDITIONING. See PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES, LAWS, AND THEORIES.

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