## Bonding Theory Of Criminology See Lombrosian Theory

BOOLEAN SET THEORY. Between 1847 and 1854 the English mathematician George Boole (1815-1864) formulated a system of algebra and symbolic logic in which propositions are represented by the binary digits 0 (referring to "false") and 1 (referring to "true"). In Boolean set theory, in particular, the "Boolean sum" is known as "set union," the "Boolean product" as "set intersection," 0 as the "null set," and 1 as the "universal set." In Boolean logic, however, the "Boolean sum" is known as "or," the "Boolean product" as "and," 0 as "false," and 1 as "true." The formulations of Boolean set theory and Boolean logic (calculus of finite differences) are considered to be isomorphic; that is, they demonstrate a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of two or more sets or classes, and between the sums or products of the elements of one set and the sums or products of the equivalent elements of the other set. Boole's ideas have been used extensively in the areas of electronics and the computer sciences, and in psychology, specifically, in re search on "artificial intelligence." Such applications are noteworthy because Boole originally considered his work to be representative of the basic processes and principles involved in human thought. See also ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE; FUZZY SET THEORY; KOLMOGOROV'S AXIOMS AND THEORY; PROBABILITY THEORY/LAWS; SET THEORY. REFERENCES

Boole, G. (1847/1948). The mathematical analysis of logic, being an essay towards a calculus of deductive reasoning. Oxford, UK: B. Blackwell. Boole, G. (1854/1940). An investigation of the laws of thought. London: Walton & Maberly/Open Court.

BOOMERANG EFFECT. See ASSIMILATION-CONTRAST THEORY/EFFECT; ATTRIBUTION THEORY.

BOOSTING EFFECT OF SOCIAL SUPPORT. See BUFFERING MODEL/HYPOTHESIS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT.

BOSS-CONSCIOUSNESS THEORY OF COGNITION. This general model of cognition, called the boss-consciousness theory (e.g., Morris & Hampson, 1983; Hampson & Morris, 1990), postulates that some central control system is required to explain the many-faceted phenomena of consciousness, introspection, automaticity, and the interrelationships of cognitive processes. In this theory, a basic distinction is made between the central (boss) control function/process and the subordinate (employee) systems. Among the assumed characteristics of boss-processing are its "intentionality" and its suitability for performing novel tasks, where the concept of consciousness is equivalent to the reception of information made available to boss, and where introspection is involved in the reporting on this information. The role of boss-consciousness in imaging depends on its specific links with top-down perceptual processing; also, for a majority of the time, the perceptual employee systems may run without boss involvement even when they are involved in top-down operations. Occasionally, however, when the incoming stimulus information is poor or inadequate, or when perceptual decisions are difficult, boss-consciousness may take more direct control of top-down processing. According to the model, imagery is the limiting case of perception without any stimulus information (i.e., imagery is equivalent to the perceptual system working in a purely top-down mode, normally under the direct control of a boss program; in this way, some organisms/individuals may learn the trick of "perceiving" without any actual stimulus data). The boss-consciousness model and theory incorporates differences between mental models and propositions where the perceivable aspects of models are representations that are expressed in the high-level language that boss deals in, and that allow it to plan subsequent processing. See also BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING THEORIES; IMAGERY AND MENTAL IMAGERY, THEORIES OF; TOP-DOWN PROCESSING THEORIES. REFERENCES

Morris, P. E., & Hampson, P. J. (1983). Imagery and consciousness. New York: Academic Press. Hampson, P. J., & Morris, P. E. (1990). Imagery, consciousness, and cognitive control: The BOSS model reviewed. In P. J. Hampson, D. F. Marks, & J. T. E. Richardson (Eds.), Imagery: Current developments. London: Routledge.

BOTTLENECK THEORY. See ATTENTION, LAWS/PRINCIPLES/THEORIES OF.

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Salvation For The Sleep Deprived The Ultimate Guide To Sleeping, Napping, Resting And  Restoring Your Energy. Of the many things that we do just instinctively and do not give much  of a thought to, sleep is probably the most prominent one. Most of us sleep only because we have to. We sleep because we cannot stay awake all 24 hours in the day.

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