PERCEPTION (I. GENERAL), THEORIES OF.
BROWN'S THEORY OF TIME AWARENESS. This philosophical/neurological theory of time awareness by the American neurologist/physician Jason W. Brown proposes that mind transforms the physical space-time continuity into moments (the "microstructure of the present moment") called the "absolute Now" and mixes these moments into an apparent continuity via an overlap of "unfolding capsules" in which the flow of psychological time is an illusion based on the rapid replacement of the capsules. Brown suggests, also, that each mind computes measures of duration from the decay of the surface present in relation to a core of past events. Brown's speculations about time stem from microgenetic theory which examines how behavior unfolds simultaneously in various dimensions and scales of time and space; included in this philosophical approach are analyses of evolutionary brain processes that run from the oldest and deepest layers of the central nervous system in a general upward and outward direction. According to microgenetic theory, in a fraction of a second the brain reproduces the whole history of its evolution and development to produce a behavior that emerges on the surface as the visible end of a process lying buried within. The assumption here is the theoretical notion that that which is buried under the surface always remains a part of that which emerges. It is suggested that living, perceiving, thinking, feeling, and acting are determined and guided not by states of being (which, in reality, last only for micro-seconds, then give way to the next), but by the process itself of passing from state to state. See also MIND/MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF; RECAPITULATION THEORY/LAW OF; TIME, THEORIES OF. REFERENCE
Brown, J. W. (1990). Psychology of time awareness. Brain and Cognition, 14, 144-164.
BRUCE EFFECT. = pregnancy blockage effect. This phenomenon describes the influence of social odor communication from one organism to another where, for example, a female mouse that has mated with one male will display a blockage of pregnancy (called the Bruce effect) if she is exposed to a strange male, or the odor of a strange male, a few days later. The Bruce effect was first observed in mice by the English reproductive biologist Hilda M. Bruce (1903-1974), where the termination of a pregnancy was brought about by substances in the urine of a virile male mouse other than the one that impregnated the female. Having thus eliminated the offspring of the other male, the animal was now able to impregnate the female himself and, thus, increase the likelihood of passing his own genes on to future generations. Other related chemical signals that facilitate communication among members of a species are pheromones and allomones (chemical substances that signal within, and among, a species messages of sexual receptivity, alarm, or territoriality). Female rats emit a "maternal pheromone" that helps the offspring find them. Also, female rats that are housed near each other tend to have estrous cycles that become synchronized over time; a similar menstrual synchrony has been found between human females who live together. See also COMMUNICATION THEORY; OLFACTION AND SMELL THEORIES OF.
Bruce, H. M. (1959). An exteroreceptive block to pregnancy in the mouse. Nature, 184, 105. Bruce, H. M. (1960). A block to pregnancy in the mouse caused by proximity to strange males. Journal of Reproduction & Fertility, 1, 96-103. Wilson, E. (1963). Pheromones. Scientific
American, 208, 100-115. Leon, M. (1974). Maternal pheromone. Physiology and Behavior, 13, 441-453. Brown, R. (1979). Mammalian social odors: A critical review. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 10, 103-162. Graham, C., & McGrew, W. (1980). Menstrual synchrony in female undergraduates living on a coeducational campus. Psychoneuroendocrinol-ogy, 5, 245-252.
BRUCE-YOUNG FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF FACE RECOGNITION. See FACE RECOGNITION AND FACIAL IDENTITY THEORY.
BRUNER'S CONCEPT FORMATION THEORY. The American developmental psychologist Jerome Seymour Bruner (1915-) and his colleagues outline four strategies in their concept formation theory that people typically use in formulating concepts: simultaneous scanning (e.g., testing different hypotheses); successive scanning (e.g., testing one hypothesis at a time); conservative focusing (e.g., testing hypotheses by elimination of the incorrect guesses, one at a time); and focus gambling (e.g., elimination of combinations of guesses). In his constructivist theory and concept-attainment model of teaching and education, Bruner emphasizes the attainment and development of concepts through the process/method of inductive reasoning (i.e., a form of reasoning, also called "empirical induction," in which a general law or principle is inferred from particular instances that have been observed previously). See also ALGORITHMIC-HEURISTIC THEORY; CONCEPT LEARNING/ CONCEPT FORMA-
TION, THEORIES OF; INDUCTIVE
(1956). A study of thinking. New York: Wiley. Bruner, J. S. (1960). The process of education.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bruner, J. S. (1966/1974). Toward a theory of instruction. Cambrigde, MA: Bel-knap Press.
Bruner, J. S. (1968). Processes of cognitive growth. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
BRUNER'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. See PIAGET'S THEORY OF DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES.
BRUNER'S THEORY OF INSTRUCTION. See ALGORITHMIC-HEURISTIC THEORY.
BRUNSWIK RATIO. See CONSTANCY HYPOTHESIS.
BRUNSWIK'S PROBABILISTIC FUNC-TIONALISM THEORY. See PERCEPTION (II. COMPARATIVE APPRAISAL), THEORIES OF.
BUCK FEVER EFFECT. See REASONED ACTION AND PLANNED BEHAVIOR THEORIES.
BUDDHISM AND ZEN BUDDHISM, DOCTRINE OF. The Buddhist doctrine, or religious approach, developed around the life and teachings of the Indian religious leader "Buddha" or Siddhartha Gautama (c. 566-480 B.C.); the doctrine advances the notion that life's suffering is caused by desire where the transcendence of suffering and desire leads, eventually, to enlightenment or "nirvana" (i.e., the extinction of consciousness and desire). Buddhism teaches, also, that any sort of concept regarding an "eternal self" is basically an illusion. Zen Buddhism is a Japanese version of Buddhism in which illumination, spiritual unity, and "satori" are achieved via direct and intuitive experience as compared to the scien tific, rational, and intellectual approaches. One Zen master asserted that to study Buddhism is to study the self, and to study the self is to forget the self, and to forget the self is to be one with others. The doctrine of Buddhism and Zen Buddhism, including, also, the approaches of Hinduism, Taoism, and Sufism, is pervasive among the major Asian psychologies. Generally, the Asian psychologies attempt to cultivate exceptional levels of well-being and transcendent states of consciousness. Over 2,500 years ago, the Buddha employed concepts similar to those of: altered states of consciousness, state dependent learning, cognitive behavior modification, social constructionist models of reality, and meditative and reciprocal-inhibition conditioning processes that are now studied by Western psychology. Although the Asian psychologies lack a high level of scientific rigor and methodology, they do place primary emphasis on phenomenology, existential meaning, and personal experience. Recently, a rapidly growing number of Western psychologists and other mental health professionals have begun personal exploration and applications of these religious doctrines into their methodologies, techniques, and treatment regimens. See also CONDUCT, LAWS OF; MASLOW'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; MORITA THERAPY THEORY; NIRVANA PRINCIPLE. REFERENCES
Kapleau, P. (1965). The three pillars of Zen: Teaching, practice, and enlightenment. Boston: Beacon Press. Shapiro, D. H., & Zifferblatt, S. (1976). Zen meditation and behavioral self-control: Similarities, differences, clinical applications. American Psychologist, 31, 519-532. Ram Dass. (1978). Journey of awakening: A meditator's guidebook. New York: Doubleday.
Walsh, R. N. (1982). The ten paramis (perfections) of Buddhism. In R. N. Walsh & D. H. Shapiro (Eds.), Beyond health and normality: Toward a vision of exceptional psychological health. New York: Van Nostrand. Walsh, R. N. (1983). The universe within us: Contemporary perspectives on Bud dhist psychology. New York: Morrow.
BUFFERING MODEL/HYPOTHESIS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT. In distinguishing between "structural" and "functional" components of the construct social support, S. Cohen and T. A. Wills suggest that the structural component refers to the degree to which a person is integrated into his/her social environment, and the functional component refers to the person's perceptions of the availability of network members to provide supportive resources when needed. Structural measures are associated with a main effect model (in which social support has a direct and beneficial impact on psychological and physical health). In contrast, functional measures are associated with an interaction effect model (the buffering model of social support). According to the buffering model/hypothesis, social support moderates the negative life events-symptomatology relation by mitigating the adverse effects of negative life events on psychological and physical well-being. By extension, and based on the results of other studies in this area, it has been found that social support not only buffers the adverse effects of negative life events, but it may boost or enhance (the boosting effect of social support) also, the beneficial impact of positive life events on one's psychological and physical health. See also FIT THEORY OF COLLEGE SATISFACTION; SELF-CONSISTENCY AND SELF-ENHANCEMENT THEORIES; STUDENT RETENTION AND ATTRITION MODEL. REFERENCES
Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357.
Barrera, M., Jr. (1988). Models of social support and life stress: Beyond the buffering hypothesis. In L. H. Cohen (Ed.), Life events and psychological functioning: Theoretical and methodological issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Weir, R. M., & Okun, M. A. (1989). Social support, positive college events, and college satisfaction: Evidence for boosting effects. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19, 758-771.
BUNDLE HYPOTHESIS. See GESTALT THEORY/LAWS.
BUNSEN-ROSCOE LAW. = Bloch's law = reciprocity law. This generalized principle, developed by the German chemist/physicist Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-1899) and the English chemist Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe (1833-1915), states that the absolute threshold for vision is a reciprocity relation and multiplicative function of the intensity and duration of the stimulus. For example, a flash of light of short duration, presented to the eye under adaptation, provides a given effect that can be achieved by the reciprocal manipulation of duration and luminance of the flash. This means that the given effect may be produced by an intense flash that acts for a short time or by a dim light that acts for a relatively long time. This relationship, when applied to many photochemical systems, is known as the Bun-sen-Roscoe law (also called the photographic law when used in the context of the effect of light on photographic emulsion). For instance, when chlorine and hydrogen are combined in the presence of light, the extent of the photochemical action varies inversely with the distance from the light source and is directly proportional to its intensity. However, when this relationship is applied to studies of human vision, it is sometimes known as Bloch's law -named after the French biologist A. M. Bloch. Considerable confirming evidence has accrued over the years that verifies the applicability of Bloch's law for threshold determination with durations of one millisecond or longer and, as long as the area of stimulation is small and the duration is not excessive, a further critical factor in the law is the total energy involved in the stimulation for very short durations. Another synonym for the Bunsen-Roscoe law is the reciprocity law, which states that response is determined by the product of the intensity and duration of the stimulus, independently of the magnitude of either one alone, and holds within rather narrow limits for various visual and other biological phenomena [cf., Broca-Sulzer effect, named after the French physicist and physician Andre Broca (1863-1925) and the French ophthalmologist David E. Sulzer (1858-1918); also called the Brucke effect, named after the German physiologist Ernst W. Brucke (1819-1892) and the Brewster effect, named after the Scottish physicist David Brewster (1781-1868) - refers to the phenomenon that a flash of light appears to be brighter than a steady light of the same intensity]. See also RICCO'S/PIPER'S LAWS. REFERENCES
Bloch, A. M. (1885). Experiences sur la vision. Societe Biologique Memoirs, Paris, 37, 493-495. Broca, A., & Sulzer, D. E. (1902) [no title].
Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Generale, 4, 632-640. Brindley, G. (1952). The Bunsen-Roscoe law for the human eye at very short durations. Journal of Physiology, 118, 135-139.
BURIDAN'S DONKEY/ASS. See CONFLICT, THEORIES OF.
BUTTERFLY EFFECT. See ORGANIZATIONAL, INDUSTRIAL, AND SYSTEMS THEORY.
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