Cohesion Principlelaw law of

association = law of combination. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) early advanced the cohesion principle/law which is the notion that ideas or acts (or, in modern times: stimuli and responses) that occur simultaneously, or in close succession, tend to become combined or unified and, thus, form an integrated idea or act of a more complex character (or, in modern times: a stimulus-response connection). The law of combination suggests that two stimuli or two responses both occurring either simultaneously or in close proximity may act as either one stimulus or one response. Much later, in the early 1900s, the law of cohesion may be recognized in the theoretical position of the Gestalt psychologists who suggested, in particular, that parts of a visual perception tend to generate a sense of wholeness of an object. The American psychologist Edward Chace Tolman (18861959) proposed a law of cohesion which states that behavioral acts that are temporally and spatially proximate tend to become integrated into more complex acts. The law of cohesion has been employed, also, in the area of group dynamics to refer to the forces that hold a group together, where cohesion is dependent upon the extent to which a group's activities are re warding for its members, the extent to which interaction within a group has positive qualities for the group's members, and the utility of group membership for achieving a person's objectives. See also ASSOCIATION, LAWS/PRINCIPLES OF; GESTALT THEORY/LAWS; PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES, LAWS, AND THEORIES; TOLMAN'S THEORY. REFERENCES

McKeon, R. (Ed.) (1941). The basic works of Aristotle. New York: Random House.

Tolman, E. C. (1959). Principles of purposive behavior. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science, Vol. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill.

COHORT EFFECTS. See AGING, THEORIES OF.

COLD EFFECTS. See LOMBROSIAN THEORY.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS, THEORY OF. See JUNG'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

COLOR-CONTINGENT AFTEREFFECT. See McCOLLOUGH EFFECT.

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