Complementary Odors



COMPLEXES, THEORY OF. The Austrian physician Josef Breuer (1842-1925) first introduced the theoretical notion of complex (i.e., a presumed organized structure or collection of ideas, impulses, and memories sharing a common emotional tone that is excluded wholly or partly from consciousness, but continues to affect a person's thoughts and behaviors) into psychology and psychoanalysis in 1895, and was adapted later by the psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Alfred Adler (1870-1937), and Carl Jung (1875-1961). In 1910, Jung introduced the term complex indicator into psychology which, in the context of an association test, refers to any behavior - such as blushing or responding slowly - that is caused by a repressed complex (cf., Jung, 1918). Among the classical psychic complexes are the following: Diana complex - the repressed wish of a woman to be a man (named after Diana, the virginal Roman goddess of the moon); Electra complex - the female counterpart to the male Oedipus complex, refers to the female child's sexual feelings/love for her father and hatred/jealousy toward her mother (named after Electra in Greek mythology who arranged for the murder of her mother Clytemnestra who, in turn, had murdered Electra's father Agamemnon); Father complex - a male child's feelings of ambivalence towards his father, and is one of the aspects of the Oedipus complex; Inferiority complex - a combination of emotionally-toned ideas deriving from repressed fear or resentment, related to real or imagined inferiority, and resulting in pugnacity towards others or in withdrawal into oneself; Inverted Oedipus complex - the child's sexual desire/love for the same-sex parent and hatred/jealousy of the opposite-sex parent; Jocasta complex - the sexual desire of a mother for her son (named after the Greek mythological figure Jocasta, the Queen of Thebes, who married Oedipus without knowing that he was her son); Mother complex - a female child's feelings of ambivalence towards her mother, and is one of the aspects of the Oedipus complex; Oedipus complex - an organized collection of loving and hostile feelings of a child towards its parents where, in its positive form, it is a sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent and a jealous hatred of the same-sex parent; and, in its negative/inverted form, it is a sexual desire for the same-sex parent and hatred of the opposite-sex parent (named after the Greek mythological character Oedipus, who killed his father Laius, married his mother Jocasta, and then blinded himself when the truth about his parentage emerged); Orestes complex - the desire of a son to kill his mother (named after the Greek mythological figure Orestes, the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, who killed his mother and her lover as revenge for the murder of his father); Phaedra complex - the sexual desire/love of a mother for her son (named after the Greek mythological character Phaedra, the wife of Theseus, who accused her stepson Hippolytus of raping her after he declined her sexual advances). Although the term complex was intended originally as a descriptive/metaphorical device, it has come to have pathological connotations, perhaps because of the pervasive theme in complexes that they are often unconscious and repressed and are, theoretically, in conflict with other behaviors. See also ADLER'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; JUNG'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. REFERENCES

Breuer, J., & Freud, S. (1895/1957). Studies on hysteria. New York: Basic Books.

Freud, S. (1905). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 7. London: Hogarth Press.

Freud, S. (1910). A special type of choice of object made by men. In Collected papers. Vol. 4. London: Hogarth Press. Jung, C. G. (1918). Studies in word association. London: Heinemann. Freud, S. (1931). Female sexuality. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 21. London: Hogarth Press.

Jung, C. G. (1960). A review of the complex theory. In The collected works of C. G. Jung. Vol. 8. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Adler, A. (1964). Advantages and disadvantages of the inferiority feeling. In H. L. Ansbacher & R. R. Ansbacher (Eds.), Superiority and social interest. New York: Viking Press.


COMPLIANCE EFFECTS AND TECHNIQUES. In their study of the phenomena of persuasion and social compliance (i.e., a form of social influence where one person yields to the explicit requests from another person or persons; cf., forced compliance - yielding to social pressure to behave in a manner conflicting with one's attitudes; and law of the first night or "right of the lord" - a medieval concept that permitted feudal lords, as a symbol of their authority, to take to bed the bride of a serf and to "deflower" her; such a practice of compliance indicated the attitude that regarded women as sexual property), social psychologists have described a number of compliance effects/techniques based upon empirical findings. For example, the door-in-the-face technique (also called the rejection-then-retreat technique) elicits compliance by making a very large initial request -which the target recipient is sure to turn down - follow-ed by a smaller request with which the recipient invariably complies; the foot-in-the-door technique (also called the camel-in-the-tent technique) elicits compliance from a recipient by preceding a request for a large commitment with a request for a small one, the initial small request serving the function of "softening up" the target person; the lowball technique elicits compliance, often in commercial transactions (such as buying a new or used car), where the customer is first induced to agree to purchase an item by being quoted an unrealistically low price; however, before the deal is completed, the salesperson says he has discovered a mistake and tells the customer that the sale may still proceed only at a much higher price; thus, already having made a commitment, the customer is more likely to agree to purchase the item than if the real/true price had been revealed at the beginning of the negotiation. See also ATTRIBUTION THEORY; FEST-INGER'S COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY; PERSUASION AND INFLUENCE THEORIES; SOCIAL IMPACT, LAW OF. REFERENCES

Compliance without pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 195-202. Cialdini, R. R. (1975). Reciprocal concessions procedure for inducing compliance: The door-in-the-face technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 206215.

Cialdini, R. B. (1978). The lowball procedure for inducing compliance: Commitment then cost. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 463-476. Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004).

Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591-621.





Brain Blaster

Brain Blaster

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