## Congruity Theoryprinciple

See FESTINGER'S COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY.

CONJOINT MEASUREMENT THEORY. The American mathematical psychologist Robert Duncan Luce (1925- ) and the American statistician John Wilder Tukey (1915-2000) developed conjoint measurement theory which involves a procedure/method for constructing measurement scales applied to objects having multiple attributes so that attributes may be traded off against one another, and where the scale value of each object is viewed as a function of the scale values of its component attributes. This approach may be used to determine whether apparent interaction effects come from actual interactions among the underlying attributes or if they are artifacts of the specific measurement model employed. Other general and specific terms related to conjoint measurement theory are the following: axiomatic measurement theory (or abstract measurement theory) - study of the correspondence between measurements of psychological or extra-psychological attrib utes/characteristics and the attributes themselves; measurement model - study of the relationship assumed to exist between numerical scales recorded as data in an empirical investigation and the attribute/characteristic being measured; multiplicative model - study of the expression of an effect as a weighted product of several independent/manipulated variables, so that if any of the independent variables is zero, then the value of the dependent/measured variable, also, is zero; multiplicative models may be divided into those that can be converted into additive models (via monotonic transformations of their independent and dependent variables) and those that cannot be converted ("non-additive models"); axiomatic conjoint measurement theory -study of the qualitative aspects of data to determine the optimal way to scale the data; numerical conjoint measurement theory (or conjoint analysis) - study of an assumed, particular composition rule and its relationship to scaled data while attempting to ar rive at an additive model solution. See also MEASUREMENT THEORY. REFERENCE

Luce, R. D. (1971/1989). Foundations of measurement. New York: Academic Press.

CONNECTION, LAWS OF. See REINFORCEMENT, THORNDIKE'S THEORY OF.

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