Convergent Evolution

DAR-WIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY.

CONVERSION HYPOTHESIS. In logical reasoning, this is a speculation that some errors in judging the validity of syllogisms occur because people mentally translate a premise into one that appears to them to be equivalent but actually has a different logical meaning. For instance, the statement "If X, then Y" may be translated or converted mentally to "If and only if X, then Y," which may lead to the incorrect inference: "If not-X, then not-Y." Related to such erroneous logical mental conversions is the atmosphere hypothesis which holds that errors in judging the validity of syllogisms sometimes occur as the result of a bias in favor of judging a conclusion valid if it contains the same quantifiers or logical terms as are included ("atmosphere") in the premises. For instance, the following syllogism may erroneously be judged to be valid: Some soldiers are blond; Some blonds are gay; therefore, Some soldiers are gay. The repetition of the logical form "Some X are Y", plus the fact that the conclusion appears to be reasonable contribute to the seeming plausibility of this basically invalid syllogism. In empirical/reality terms (e.g., as via survey data), one may indeed discover the "truth" that "Some soldiers are gay," but in terms of logic, and errors in formal logic, the conclusion that "Some soldiers are gay" does not follow legitimately or validly from the given premises. In the contexts of Freudian analysis, clinical psychology, and psychotherapy, the notion of conversion (e.g., conversion hysteria) refers to the transformation or translation of psychic conflicts or psychological problems into physical symptoms such as apparent paralysis, blindness, deafness, or anaesthesia. See also FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; GESTALT THEORY/LAWS; MIND/MEN-TAL SET, LAW OF; NULL HYPOTHESIS; PERCEPTION (II. COMPARATIVE APPRAISAL), THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Freud, S. (1909). Analysis of a phobia in a five-year-old boy. In The complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 10. London: Hogarth Press. Colman, A. M. (2001). A dictionary of psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

CONVERSION HYSTERIA PHENOMENON. See CONVERSION HYPOTHESIS; FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

COOLIDGE EFFECT. See LOVE, THEORIES OF.

COOPERATION/COMPETITION, THE-ORIES OF. See CONFLICT, THEORIES OF; DEUTSCH'S CRUDE LAW OF SO-CIAL RELATIONS/RESOLUTIONS.

COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE. See PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING MODEL.

COPE MODEL. See COGNITIVE THEORIES OF EMOTIONS.

COPE'S LAW/RULE. See DEVELOP-MEN-TAL THEORY.

COPY THEORY. See GESTALT THEORY/ LAWS.

CORE-CONTEXT THEORY. See PERCEPTION (II. COMPARATIVE APPRAISAL), THEORIES OF.

CORIOLIS ILLUSION. See APPENDIX

CORNSWEET ILLUSION. See APPENDIX A, CRAIK-O'BRIEN EFFECT.

CORPUSCULAR/PARTICLE THEORY. See VISION/SIGHT, THEORIES OF.

CORRESPONDENCE BIAS HYPOTHESIS. This conjecture in social psychology - formulated by the American psychologists Edward Ellsworth Jones (19261993) and Keith Eugene Davis (1936- ) -concerns the tendency for one person to draw inferences about another person's unique and enduring dispositions from behaviors that may be explained entirely by the context(s) or situation(s) in which they occur. The major problem involved in interpreting and "making sense out of' other people is that we largely employ ("attribute") internal, invisible, intangible, and unobservable constructs such as character, belief, motive, intention, and desire when assessing another person - rather than using more observable, situational, and tangible factors such as the person's words and deeds. Accordingly, as we make inferences about other people based upon such invisible constructs, we risk making a mistake: when observing another's behavior, we may conclude (often erroneously) that the person who performed the behavior the behavior was "predisposed" (internal basis) to do so; that is, the person's behavior corresponds to the person's unique dispositions. Moreover, we may draw such conclusions even when a more rational and logical analysis (external basis) would suggest otherwise. Thus, the correspondence bias hypothesis states that humans have a pervasive tendency to underestimate the role of external situational factors and to overestimate the role of internal motives, dispositions, and factors when interpreting the behavior of other people. Among the mechanisms and factors that may produce distinct forms of correspondence bias are a lack of awareness, inflated categorizations, unrealistic expectations, and incomplete corrections. Other names for the correspondence bias are "correspondent inference," "fundamental attribution error," "dispositionist bias," and "overattribution bias." See also ATTRIBUTION THEORY; FUNDAMENTAL ATTRUBUTION ERROR; IMPRESSION FOR-MATION, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.

Jones, E. E., & Davis, K. E. (1965). From acts to dispositions: The attribution processes in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press. Gilbert, D. T., & Malone, P. S. (1995). The correspondence bias. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 21-38.

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