Cumulative Advantage Doctrine Of See Matthew Effect

CUMULATIVE DEFICITS THEORY/ PHENOMENA. The American social psychologist Morton Deutsch (1920- ) and the Nigerian psychologist Christopher Bakare (1935- ) both suggested the cumulative deficits phenonenon/theory, and Bakare formulated a theory of the cumulative cognitive deficit syndrome. The theory of cumulative deficits refers to the condition where, with persistent influence from an impoverished environment, there is over time an increasingly larger negative effect on the behavior in question. Bakare studied the phenomenon in African children and developed a number of cognitive-stimulation materials for correcting such deficits once they are diagnosed (cf., M. Hutt's theory of microdiagnosis which proposes that in all exceptional cases an examiner should develop relevant hypotheses concerning test scores that would help to explain any suspected deviance from the "true score" of individuals). In addition to his study of the phenomenon, Deutsch has conducted research on interracial housing, cooperation and competition, interpersonal conflict, and distributive justice. See also CONFLICT, THEORIES OF; INTELLIGENCE, THEORIES/LAWS OF. REFERENCES

Deutsch, M., & Brown, B. (1964). Social influences in negro-white intelligence differences. Journal of Social Issues, 20, 24-35. Deutsch, M., & Krauss, R. (1965). Theories of social psychology. New York: Basic Books. Bakare, C. (1972). Social class differences in the performance of Nigerian children on the Draw-a-Man test. In L. Cronbach, & P. Drenth (Eds.), Mental tests and cultural adaptation. The Hague: Mouton. Hutt, M. (1980). Microdiagnosis and misuse of scores and standards. Psy-chologicalReports, 50, 239-255.

CUPBOARD THEORY. The cupboard theory is one of the earliest explanations for the phenomenon of infant attachment. The theory refers to the mother's providing food when her infant is hungry, warmth when it is cold, and dryness when it is wet and uncomfortable. That is, the mother functions virtually as a cupboard of supplies for her infant. Through her association with the infant and giving such needed supplies, the mother herself becomes a positive stimulus (conditioned reinforcer) and, as a result of the association process, the infant clings to her and demonstrates other signs of attachment. A number of experiments conducted on the phenomenon of infant attachment in the monkey, however, indicate unequivocally that the cupboard theory cannot account exclusively for attachment behavior in infants. Rather, the clinging behavior (in the case of the monkeys, clinging to a soft, cuddly form) in infants appears to be an innate response. The American psychologist Harry Harlow (1905-1981) and his associates isolated baby monkeys from their mothers immediately after birth and raised them alone in a cage containing two inanimate "surrogate" (substitute) mothers, one that was made of bare wire mesh but providing milk nourishment, and the other padded and covered with terry cloth but providing no food nourishment If the cupboard theory were valid, the infants should have learned to cling to the surrogate mother that provided them with milk (the wire surrogate). However, the infant monkeys did not cling to the wire mother; they preferred to cling to the cuddly, cloth, warmer surrogate mother and went to the wire mother only to drink milk. Harlow's results suggest that close physical contact with a cuddly object is a biological need for infant monkeys (as well as for human infants), and infants cling and attach to their mothers not simply because the infant receives food from the mother but, also, because the physical contact with the mother is innately reinforcing. See also ANACLI-TIC THEORY; INFANT ATTACHMENT THEORIES; LOVE, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Harlow, H. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 673685.

Affectional responses in the infant monkey. Science, 130, 421432.

Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

CYBERNETIC THEORY. See CON-TROL/ SYSTEMS THEORY; TOTE MODEL/HY-POTHESIS.

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